The Qt Application Manager
The Qt Application Manager is a daemon, that helps you with creating embedded Linux systems that have a highly complex UI setup: these can optionally be split into a multi-process setup to increase flexibility and stability. The main building blocks of the application-manager are as follows:
Wayland window compositor
In order to support multiple UI processes on an embedded Linux system, you need a central window compositor: the state-of-the-art solution for this is a Wayland compositor, so the application-manager incorporates a fully Wayland protocol compliant compositor, based on the QtWayland module.
The actual window compositing part is project specific and can be written using QtQuick elements, giving you all the possibilities of QML to easily implement rich and fluid animations in your compositor.
On top of an already existing Qt extension to the Wayland protocol, the application-manager also provides an easy to use interface to attach arbitrary meta-data to any Wayland window. This is especially useful on custom embedded UI systems, since the top-level UI elements might not follow the classic desktop centric Application Window, Modal Dialog and Popup Menu window classification approach.
The launcher part is the central component for application life-cycle management: it will start and stop applications (internal or 3rd-party) either on explicit request or as automatic reaction to external triggers (e.g. in low-memory situations, you want to gracefully terminate applications that the user hasn't interacted with in a while).
Since UI applications typically have to be stopped and restarted multiple times during the up-time of an embedded system and given the fact that most customers will put tight constraints on the startup times of UI applications, the application-manager implements some tricks to improve the application starting performance: any application type relying on a runtime component (e.g. QML, HTML) can be quick-launched.
The actual implementation heavily depends on the type of runtime; the application-manager ships with a QML quick-launcher that can be configured to keep at least one process with a fully initialized QML engine available in the background (dependent on actual CPU load), so that starting an application only requires loading the application's actual QML files into the existing engine.
Support for other runtimes can be easily added via an external, independent runtime launcher binary.
In addition to the runtime abstraction, the application-manager is also able to run any application inside a container instead of just an external Unix process. Support for these container solutions has to be provided by the customer and could range from full container solutions like KVM, XEN to LXC and even down to mandatory access control frameworks like AppArmor and SELinux. The application-manager comes with an example integration of Pelagicore's SoftwareContainers, which are based on LXC (Linux Containers).
User input management
Since most embedded UI applications rely on a virtual keyboard, the Qt Virtual Keyboard module can be easily integrated into the System-UI and the compositor. Through the Wayland protocol this virtual keyboard component can then be transparently used from any Qt/QML application without any special provisions on the application side for full internationalized text input. Non-Qt applications will have to provide support for the required, open Wayland text-input protocol.
The application-manager acts as a freedesktop.org standards compliant notification server on the D-Bus. For QtQuick applications, a QML component is provided which encapsulates the client side of the freedesktop.org notification protocol.
Both sides also come with Qt-like APIs to extend any notification request with additional meta-data using standard compliant mechanism.
In addition to applications that are part of the System-UI or the base installation (built-in), the application-manager also supports applications that can be dynamically installed, updated and deinstalled (third-party).
Developing such a built-in application versus a third-party application is not much different: only the third-party ones need an additional packaging step: the application-manager comes with a very simple package format and a tool that can create and also digitally sign those packages.
The application-manager's installer component is able to install and update these packages in a background thread using either plain HTTP(S) transfers or by receiving data from a customer specific local socket connection. In order to support devices with little disk-space to spare, all package installations and updates are not completely downloaded for later installation, but they are installed while being streamed to the device.
Using a custom package format was a deliberate decision: all standard Unix package formats are far too "heavy-weight" in that they either use libraries supporting legacy formats or come with hooks for arbitrary shell scripts, that could be used to circumvent existing security measures. The application-manager basically uses a TAR archive with further restrictions on the type of content and some named, application-manager specific, YAML meta-data files. Parsing these packages is done via the BSD standard
libarchive library, which is the basis for the actual
The packages can be cryptographically signed by both the developer and - in production setups - by the app-store server. Devices can of course be put into a "developer mode" during the development phase to either require only a developer signature or even no signature at all.
Aggregating all these components into a single daemon enables them to work together much more efficiently:
- The compositor has access to the process ids of all applications started by the application-manager, so it can perform security checks when an application requests to show a window. By default, windows from unknown process will not be shown on the screen.
- Based on application capabilities (stored in digitally signed manifests) and its knowledge of application-to-PID mappings, the application-manager (a) will enforce policies on the usage of its internal IPC mechanism and (b) does provide a D-Bus interface to the system's middleware to allow other process and libraries to authenticate resource usage of applications started by the application-manager.
The application-manager's ability to run the same System-UI and QML applications in both single- and multi-process mode (usually without requiring any changes to either the System-UI or the QML applications themselves) also has quite some advantages - both during the development phase as well as for product scaling:
- As a developer you can freely to choose which desktop OS you want to develop on: for single-process testing you can choose from Windows, macOS and Linux without requiring Wayland. Multi-process is available on Linux (via nested Wayland either on a X11 or Wayland desktop). Experimental support for multi-process mode and Wayland is available for macOS.
- Both modes can be mixed: 3rd–party applications could be run in separate processes (or even in a secure container), while built-in QML applications are loaded in-process. e.g. for quicker startup times.
- The UI code that runs on the target system is the same code that is run on the developer's desktop machines.
- Given a complex product with many multi-process applications that runs on high-end hardware, the application-manager gives you the possibility to scale down this product to lower-end hardware by moving either all or just a few critical applications from multi- to single-process mode, thereby saving on system and graphics memory as well as on startup times.
Please be aware that any non-QML application (e.g. a native C++ compiled executable) will break this setup for developers on machines without Wayland support.
Still there are projects, where applications using multiple UI technologies (e.g. QML, HTML or native OpenGL rendering) are a requirement. In this scenario, the application-manager's ability to support various runtimes makes it possible to composite all these applications seamlessly into a consistent user experience.
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