C

Runtime: Event Processing

Presentation Events

In the Runtime, processing presentation events is a single stage of the overall Frame Update cycle governing the operation of the runtime. Processing events is a sophisticated process with many associated activities and contracts. This page describes how event processing works, what sorts of things can happen as a result of events being processed, and how your application (C++) can interact with the runtime in terms of events.

How Stuff Works

The stages of the update cycle are clearly defined entities, with nice start and end conditions, that occur one right after another and in a well-specified order to accomplish the calculations and activities required for a given frame. The event processing stage is arguably the most important stage, so we'll explore some of the details of its operation here.

There exists a list of events that is treated as a first-in/first-out queue. The act of 'firing an event' is literally adding the event being 'fired' to the end of this queue. This operation is the same regardless of when the event is fired.

On each frame the processing of events is started implicitly by the call to CRuntime::UpdatePresentations. On most frames, when event processing begins, the event list (queue) is empty. There are two cases in which there will be events in the queue.

  1. An input event was fired by the Input Engine in response to user action (e.g. Pressing buttons on the controller)
  2. An event was fired after event processing was complete for last frame (e.g. An event was fired from QML)

Event processing happens in the same way regardless of how the events got on the list; Each event in the list is looked at in turn and anyone interested in that event is notified. It's important to note that all of the events in the queue are processed in turn (including events fired as a result of other events being processed) on and on until there are no events left to process. Only when the event list is completely empty does the event processing stage end for this frame.

There are several possible outcomes of processing an event, we'll explore them next.

Event Processing Results

Changing Slides

All slide changes are effected as the result of processing events. This can be a critical point to understand when trying to deduce the effects of complex interactions between actions, slides and script. For example, you set up a visual state saying that when the state machine enters a particular state tell a component to go to the next slide. For the runtime, a piece of logic gets created representing this action. When the onSelect event is fired and later processed, the interested logic will be notified and the slide change will occur.

Note: Behavior event registrations (created with QML Behavior registerForEvent) work similarly to the logic described above. If a behavior registers explicitly for a certain event and in the handler calls goToSlide, essentially the same things happen.

Changing Properties

Attributes can have their values changed in response to events, affecting the visual appearance of the presentation. Set Property actions created in Studio will be executed when their specified event is processed, resulting in properties being changed. Also, changing slides will result in changed properties if a master object inside of Studio has one or more of its properties unlinked from the master slide and that property is changed per-slide.

Executing Behavior Callbacks

Processing an event can result in arbitrary QML Behavior callback code being executed. An event registration can be created by using the registerForEvent function to listen for a specific event on a specific element. The registration also has a callback function associated with it and when that specific event targeting that element is processed, the behavior callback function will be executed.

Of course, behavior can inspect and change properties on various elements, affect slide changes, fire more events, etc.

Firing More Events (Cascading)

There are two ways a presentation may fire an event in response to another event. The first way is through behaviors as described above, and the second way is through the action palette.

Behaviors in Studio can have arbitrary Custom Events associated with them by adding these custom events in the header section of the behavior's .qml file. When a behavior with one or more Custom Events is the target of an action in the action palette Studio will offer the Fire Event action. By using this action, arbitrary cascading events can be set up to fire by pointing and clicking.

Note: These cascading events will all be processed in the same frame. The event processor doesn't stop processing events until there are none left to process.

How Your Application (C++) Interacts with Event Processing

There are two basic use cases for your application interacting with event processing:

  1. Firing arbitrary events into the Runtime system.
  2. Responding (with C++ callbacks) to events being processed.

Firing Your Own Arbitrary Events into a Presentation

You can fire arbitrary events into a presentation using CPresentation::FireEvent. If some part of your application needs to notify a running presentation of something in an event driven manner, this is the way to go. This is useful in a lot of circumstances such as "A cut-scene video is done playing" and "Someone from the user's online friend list has logged on!".

The arguments to CPresentation::FireEvent allow you to parameterize the events you fire into the system. The lifespan of the memory associated with these parameters is completely managed by the Runtime itself allowing you to 'fire and forget'.

Responding to Events Being Processed

The method CPresentation::RegisterEventCallback allows you to register a C++ callback for when a specific event is processed on a certain element. The TEventCallback typedef is the signature your callback function should implement. Also note the last parameter to CPresentation::RegisterEventCallback which allows you to store a void* context data for use in your callback.

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