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Basic Graphics Layouts Example


The Basic Graphics Layouts example shows how to use the layout classes in QGraphicsView: QGraphicsLinearLayout and QGraphicsGridLayout.

Screenshot of the Basic Layouts Example

Window Class Definition

The Window class is a subclass of QGraphicsWidget. It has a constructor with a QGraphicsWidget parent as its parameter.

 class Window : public QGraphicsWidget {

     Window(QGraphicsWidget *parent = 0);


Window Class Implementation

The constructor of Window instantiates a QGraphicsLinearLayout object, windowLayout, with vertical orientation. We instantiate another QGraphicsLinearLayout object, linear, whose parent is windowLayout. Next, we create a LayoutItem object, item and add it to linear with the addItem() function. We also provide item with a stretchFactor.

     QGraphicsLinearLayout *windowLayout = new QGraphicsLinearLayout(Qt::Vertical);
     QGraphicsLinearLayout *linear = new QGraphicsLinearLayout(windowLayout);
     LayoutItem *item = new LayoutItem;
     linear->setStretchFactor(item, 1);

We repeat the process:

     item = new LayoutItem;
     linear->setStretchFactor(item, 3);

We then add linear to windowLayout, nesting two QGraphicsLinearLayout objects. Apart from the QGraphicsLinearLayout, we also use a QGraphicsGridLayout object, grid, which is a 4x3 grid with some cells spanning to other rows.

We create seven LayoutItem objects and place them into grid with the addItem() function as shown in the code snippet below:

     QGraphicsGridLayout *grid = new QGraphicsGridLayout(windowLayout);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 0, 0, 4, 1);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 0, 1, 2, 1, Qt::AlignVCenter);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 2, 1, 2, 1, Qt::AlignVCenter);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 0, 2);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 1, 2);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 2, 2);
     item = new LayoutItem;
     grid->addItem(item, 3, 2);

The first item we add to grid is placed in the top left cell, spanning four rows. The next two items are placed in the second column, and they span two rows. Each item's maximumHeight() and minimumHeight() are set to be equal so that they do not expand vertically. As a result, these items will not fit vertically in their cells. So, we specify that they should be vertically aligned in the center of the cell using Qt::AlignVCenter.

Finally, grid itself is added to windowLayout. Unlike QGridLayout::addItem(), QGraphicsGridLayout::addItem() requires a row and a column for its argument, specifying which cell the item should be positioned in. Also, if the rowSpan and columnSpan arguments are omitted, they will default to 1.

Note that we do not specify a parent for each LayoutItem that we construct, as all these items will be added to windowLayout. When we add an item to a layout, it will be automatically reparented to the widget on which the layout is installed.

     setWindowTitle(tr("Basic Graphics Layouts Example"));

Now that we have set up grid and added it to windowLayout, we install windowLayout onto the window object using QGraphicsWidget::setLayout() and we set the window title.

LayoutItem Class Definition

The LayoutItem class is a subclass of QGraphicsWidget. It has a constructor, a destructor, and a reimplementation of the {QGraphicsItem::paint()}{paint()} function.

 class LayoutItem : public QGraphicsWidget

     LayoutItem(QGraphicsItem *parent = 0);
     void paint(QPainter *painter, const QStyleOptionGraphicsItem *option,
         QWidget *widget = 0);

     QPixmap *pix;

The LayoutItem class also has a private instance of QPixmap, pix.

Note: We subclass QGraphicsWidget so that LayoutItem objects can be automatically plugged into a layout, as QGraphicsWidget is a specialization of QGraphicsLayoutItem.

LayoutItem Class Implementation

In LayoutItem's constructor, pix is instantiated and the QT_original_R.png image is loaded into it. We set the size of LayoutItem to be slightly larger than the size of the pixmap as we require some space around it for borders that we will paint later. Alternatively, you could scale the pixmap to prevent the item from becoming smaller than the pixmap.

 LayoutItem::LayoutItem(QGraphicsItem *parent/* = 0*/)
     : QGraphicsWidget(parent)
     pix = new QPixmap(QLatin1String(":/images/block.png"));
     // Do not allow a size smaller than the pixmap with two frames around it.
     setMinimumSize(pix->size() + QSize(12, 12));

We use the Q_UNUSED() macro to prevent the compiler from generating warnings regarding unused parameters.

 void LayoutItem::paint(QPainter *painter,
     const QStyleOptionGraphicsItem *option, QWidget *widget /*= 0*/)

     QRectF frame(QPointF(0,0), geometry().size());
     qreal w = pix->width();
     qreal h = pix->height();
     QGradientStops stops;

The idea behind the paint() function is to paint the background rect then paint a rect around the pixmap.

     // paint a background rect (with gradient)
     QLinearGradient gradient(frame.topLeft(), frame.topLeft() + QPointF(200,200));
     stops << QGradientStop(0.0, QColor(60, 60,  60));
     stops << QGradientStop(frame.height()/2/frame.height(), QColor(102, 176, 54));

     //stops << QGradientStop(((frame.height() + h)/2 )/frame.height(), QColor(157, 195,  55));
     stops << QGradientStop(1.0, QColor(215, 215, 215));
     painter->drawRoundedRect(frame, 10.0, 10.0);

     // paint a rect around the pixmap (with gradient)
     QPointF pixpos = frame.center() - (QPointF(w, h)/2);
     QRectF innerFrame(pixpos, QSizeF(w, h));
     innerFrame.adjust(-4, -4, +4, +4);
     stops << QGradientStop(0.0, QColor(215, 255, 200));
     stops << QGradientStop(0.5, QColor(102, 176, 54));
     stops << QGradientStop(1.0, QColor(0, 0,  0));
     painter->drawRoundedRect(innerFrame, 10.0, 10.0);
     painter->drawPixmap(pixpos, *pix);

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Qt 4.4.3