com.trolltech.qt.gui
Class QSyntaxHighlighter

java.lang.Object
  extended by com.trolltech.qt.internal.QSignalEmitterInternal
      extended by com.trolltech.qt.QSignalEmitter
          extended by com.trolltech.qt.QtJambiObject
              extended by com.trolltech.qt.core.QObject
                  extended by com.trolltech.qt.gui.QSyntaxHighlighter
All Implemented Interfaces:
QtJambiInterface

public abstract class QSyntaxHighlighter
extends QObject

The QSyntaxHighlighter class allows you to define syntax highlighting rules, and in addition you can use the class to query a document's current formatting or user data. The QSyntaxHighlighter class is a base class for implementing QTextEdit syntax highlighters. A syntax highligher automatically highlights parts of the text in a QTextEdit, or more generally in a QTextDocument. Syntax highlighters are often used when the user is entering text in a specific format (for example source code) and help the user to read the text and identify syntax errors.

To provide your own syntax highlighting, you must subclass QSyntaxHighlighter and reimplement highlightBlock().

When you create an instance of your QSyntaxHighlighter subclass, pass it the QTextEdit or QTextDocument that you want the syntax highlighting to be applied to. For example:

           QTextEdit editor = new QTextEdit();
           MyHighlighter highlighter = new MyHighlighter(editor.document());
After this your highlightBlock() function will be called automatically whenever necessary. Use your highlightBlock() function to apply formatting (e.g. setting the font and color) to the text that is passed to it. QSyntaxHighlighter provides the setFormat() function which applies a given QTextCharFormat on the current text block. For example:
        protected void highlightBlock(String text)
        {
            QTextCharFormat myClassFormat = new QTextCharFormat();
            myClassFormat.setFontWeight(QFont.Weight.Bold.value());
            myClassFormat.setForeground(new QBrush(QColor.darkMagenta));
            String pattern = "\\bMy[A-Za-z]+\\b";

            QRegExp expression = new QRegExp(pattern);
            int index = expression.indexIn(text);
            while (index >= 0) {
                int length = expression.matchedLength();
                setFormat(index, length, myClassFormat);
                index = expression.indexIn(text, index + length);
             }
         }
Some syntaxes can have constructs that span several text blocks. For example, a C++ syntax highlighter should be able to cope with /*...*/ multiline comments. To deal with these cases it is necessary to know the end state of the previous text block (e.g. "in comment").

Inside your highlightBlock() implementation you can query the end state of the previous text block using the previousBlockState() function. After parsing the block you can save the last state using setCurrentBlockState().

The currentBlockState() and previousBlockState() functions return an int value. If no state is set, the returned value is -1. You can designate any other value to identify any given state using the setCurrentBlockState() function. Once the state is set the QTextBlock keeps that value until it is set set again or until the corresponding paragraph of text is deleted.

For example, if you're writing a simple C++ syntax highlighter, you might designate 1 to signify "in comment":

        QTextCharFormat multiLineCommentFormat = new QTextCharFormat();
        multiLineCommentFormat.setForeground(new QBrush(QColor.red));

        QRegExp startExpression = new QRegExp("/\\*");
        QRegExp endExpression = new QRegExp("\\* /");

        setCurrentBlockState(0);

        int startIndex = 0;
        if (previousBlockState() != 1)
            startIndex = startExpression.indexIn(text);

        while (startIndex >= 0) {
           int endIndex = endExpression.indexIn(text, startIndex);
           int commentLength;
           if (endIndex == -1) {
               setCurrentBlockState(1);
               commentLength = text.length() - startIndex;
           } else {
               commentLength = endIndex - startIndex
                               + endExpression.matchedLength();
           }
           setFormat(startIndex, commentLength, multiLineCommentFormat);
           startIndex = startExpression.indexIn(text,
                                     startIndex + commentLength);
        }
In the example above, we first set the current block state to 0. Then, if the previous block ended within a comment, we higlight from the beginning of the current block (startIndex = 0). Otherwise, we search for the given start expression. If the specified end expression cannot be found in the text block, we change the current block state by calling setCurrentBlockState(), and make sure that the rest of the block is higlighted.

In addition you can query the current formatting and user data using the format() and currentBlockUserData() functions respectively. You can also attach user data to the current text block using the setCurrentBlockUserData() function. QTextBlockUserData can be used to store custom settings. In the case of syntax highlighting, it is in particular interesting as cache storage for information that you may figure out while parsing the paragraph's text. For an example, see the setCurrentBlockUserData() documentation.

See also:
QTextEdit, and Syntax Highlighter Example.


Nested Class Summary
 
Nested classes/interfaces inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.QSignalEmitter
QSignalEmitter.AbstractSignal, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal0, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal1, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal2, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal3, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal4, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal5, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal6, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal7, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal8, QSignalEmitter.PrivateSignal9, QSignalEmitter.Signal0, QSignalEmitter.Signal1, QSignalEmitter.Signal2, QSignalEmitter.Signal3, QSignalEmitter.Signal4, QSignalEmitter.Signal5, QSignalEmitter.Signal6, QSignalEmitter.Signal7, QSignalEmitter.Signal8, QSignalEmitter.Signal9
 
Nested classes/interfaces inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.internal.QSignalEmitterInternal
com.trolltech.qt.internal.QSignalEmitterInternal.AbstractSignalInternal
 
Field Summary
 
Fields inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.internal.QSignalEmitterInternal
currentSender
 
Constructor Summary
QSyntaxHighlighter(QObject parent)
          Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter with the given parent.
QSyntaxHighlighter(QTextDocument parent)
          Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter and installs it on parent.
QSyntaxHighlighter(QTextEdit parent)
          Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter and installs it on parent 's QTextDocument.
 
Method Summary
protected  QTextBlock currentBlock()
          Returns the current text block.
protected  int currentBlockState()
          Returns the state of the current text block.
protected  QTextBlockUserData currentBlockUserData()
          Returns the QTextBlockUserData object previously attached to the current text block.
 QTextDocument document()
          Returns the QTextDocument on which this syntax highlighter is installed.
protected  QTextCharFormat format(int pos)
          Returns the format at position inside the syntax highlighter's current text block.
protected abstract  void highlightBlock(java.lang.String text)
          Highlights the given text block.
protected  int previousBlockState()
          Returns the end state of the text block previous to the syntax highlighter's current block.
 void rehighlight()
          Redoes the highlighting of the whole document.
protected  void setCurrentBlockState(int newState)
          Sets the state of the current text block to newState.
protected  void setCurrentBlockUserData(QTextBlockUserData data)
          Attaches the given data to the current text block.
 void setDocument(QTextDocument doc)
          Installs the syntax highlighter on the given QTextDocumentdoc.
protected  void setFormat(int start, int count, QColor color)
          This is an overloaded member function, provided for convenience.
protected  void setFormat(int start, int count, QFont font)
          This is an overloaded member function, provided for convenience.
protected  void setFormat(int start, int count, QTextCharFormat format)
          This function is applied to the syntax highlighter's current text block (i.
 
Methods inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.core.QObject
childEvent, children, connectSlotsByName, customEvent, disposeLater, dumpObjectInfo, dumpObjectTree, dynamicPropertyNames, event, eventFilter, findChild, findChild, findChild, findChildren, findChildren, findChildren, findChildren, indexOfProperty, installEventFilter, isWidgetType, killTimer, moveToThread, objectName, parent, properties, property, removeEventFilter, setObjectName, setParent, setProperty, startTimer, timerEvent, toString, userProperty
 
Methods inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.QtJambiObject
dispose, disposed, equals, finalize, reassignNativeResources, tr, tr, tr
 
Methods inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.QSignalEmitter
blockSignals, disconnect, disconnect, signalsBlocked, signalSender, thread
 
Methods inherited from class com.trolltech.qt.internal.QSignalEmitterInternal
__qt_signalInitialization
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface com.trolltech.qt.QtJambiInterface
disableGarbageCollection, nativeId, nativePointer, reenableGarbageCollection, setJavaOwnership
 

Constructor Detail

QSyntaxHighlighter

public QSyntaxHighlighter(QObject parent)
Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter with the given parent.


QSyntaxHighlighter

public QSyntaxHighlighter(QTextDocument parent)
Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter and installs it on parent. The specified QTextDocument also becomes the owner of the QSyntaxHighlighter.


QSyntaxHighlighter

public QSyntaxHighlighter(QTextEdit parent)
Constructs a QSyntaxHighlighter and installs it on parent 's QTextDocument. The specified QTextEdit also becomes the owner of the QSyntaxHighlighter.

Method Detail

currentBlock

protected final QTextBlock currentBlock()
Returns the current text block.


currentBlockState

protected final int currentBlockState()
Returns the state of the current text block. If no value is set, the returned value is -1.

See also:
setCurrentBlockState().


currentBlockUserData

protected final QTextBlockUserData currentBlockUserData()
Returns the QTextBlockUserData object previously attached to the current text block.

See also:
QTextBlock::userData(), and setCurrentBlockUserData().


document

public final QTextDocument document()
Returns the QTextDocument on which this syntax highlighter is installed.

See also:
setDocument().


format

protected final QTextCharFormat format(int pos)
Returns the format at position inside the syntax highlighter's current text block.

See also:
setFormat().


previousBlockState

protected final int previousBlockState()
Returns the end state of the text block previous to the syntax highlighter's current block. If no value was previously set, the returned value is -1.

See also:
highlightBlock(), and setCurrentBlockState().


rehighlight

public final void rehighlight()
Redoes the highlighting of the whole document.


setCurrentBlockState

protected final void setCurrentBlockState(int newState)
Sets the state of the current text block to newState.

See also:
currentBlockState(), and highlightBlock().


setCurrentBlockUserData

protected final void setCurrentBlockUserData(QTextBlockUserData data)
Attaches the given data to the current text block. The ownership is passed to the underlying text document, i.e. the provided QTextBlockUserData object will be deleted if the corresponding text block gets deleted.

QTextBlockUserData can be used to store custom settings. In the case of syntax highlighting, it is in particular interesting as cache storage for information that you may figure out while parsing the paragraph's text.

For example while parsing the text, you can keep track of parenthesis characters that you encounter ('{[(' and the like), and store their relative position and the actual QChar in a simple class derived from QTextBlockUserData:

        class ParenthesisInfo
        {
            char character;
            int position;
        }

        class BlockData extends QTextBlockUserData
        {
            List<ParenthesisInfo> parentheses;
        }
During cursor navigation in the associated editor, you can ask the current QTextBlock (retrieved using the QTextCursor::block() function) if it has a user data object set and cast it to your BlockData object. Then you can check if the current cursor position matches with a previously recorded parenthesis position, and, depending on the type of parenthesis (opening or closing), find the next opening or closing parenthesis on the same level.

In this way you can do a visual parenthesis matching and highlight from the current cursor position to the matching parenthesis. That makes it easier to spot a missing parenthesis in your code and to find where a corresponding opening/closing parenthesis is when editing parenthesis intensive code.

See also:
currentBlockUserData(), and QTextBlock::setUserData().


setDocument

public final void setDocument(QTextDocument doc)
Installs the syntax highlighter on the given QTextDocumentdoc. A QSyntaxHighlighter can only be used with one document at a time.

See also:
document().


setFormat

protected final void setFormat(int start,
                               int count,
                               QColor color)
This is an overloaded member function, provided for convenience.

The specified color is applied to the current text block from the start position for a length of count characters.

The other attributes of the current text block, e.g. the font and background color, are reset to default values.

See also:
format(), and highlightBlock().


setFormat

protected final void setFormat(int start,
                               int count,
                               QFont font)
This is an overloaded member function, provided for convenience.

The specified font is applied to the current text block from the start position for a length of count characters.

The other attributes of the current text block, e.g. the font and background color, are reset to default values.

See also:
format(), and highlightBlock().


setFormat

protected final void setFormat(int start,
                               int count,
                               QTextCharFormat format)
This function is applied to the syntax highlighter's current text block (i. . the text that is passed to the highlightBlock() function).

The specified format is applied to the text from the start position for a length of count characters (if count is 0, nothing is done). The formatting properties set in format are merged at display time with the formatting information stored directly in the document, for example as previously set with QTextCursor's functions. Note that the document itself remains unmodified by the format set through this function.

See also:
format(), and highlightBlock().


highlightBlock

protected abstract void highlightBlock(java.lang.String text)
Highlights the given text block. This function is called when necessary by the rich text engine, i.e. on text blocks which have changed.

To provide your own syntax highlighting, you must subclass QSyntaxHighlighter and reimplement highlightBlock(). In your reimplementation you should parse the block's text and call setFormat() as often as necessary to apply any font and color changes that you require. For example:

        protected void highlightBlock(String text)
        {
            QTextCharFormat myClassFormat = new QTextCharFormat();
            myClassFormat.setFontWeight(QFont.Weight.Bold.value());
            myClassFormat.setForeground(new QBrush(QColor.darkMagenta));
            String pattern = "\\bMy[A-Za-z]+\\b";

            QRegExp expression = new QRegExp(pattern);
            int index = expression.indexIn(text);
            while (index >= 0) {
                int length = expression.matchedLength();
                setFormat(index, length, myClassFormat);
                index = expression.indexIn(text, index + length);
             }
         }
Some syntaxes can have constructs that span several text blocks. For example, a C++ syntax highlighter should be able to cope with /*...*/ multiline comments. To deal with these cases it is necessary to know the end state of the previous text block (e.g. "in comment").

Inside your highlightBlock() implementation you can query the end state of the previous text block using the previousBlockState() function. After parsing the block you can save the last state using setCurrentBlockState().

The currentBlockState() and previousBlockState() functions return an int value. If no state is set, the returned value is -1. You can designate any other value to identify any given state using the setCurrentBlockState() function. Once the state is set the QTextBlock keeps that value until it is set set again or until the corresponding paragraph of text gets deleted.

For example, if you're writing a simple C++ syntax highlighter, you might designate 1 to signify "in comment". For a text block that ended in the middle of a comment you'd set 1 using setCurrentBlockState, and for other paragraphs you'd set 0. In your parsing code if the return value of previousBlockState() is 1, you would highlight the text as a C++ comment until you reached the closing */.

See also:
previousBlockState(), setFormat(), and setCurrentBlockState().