The Sliders example shows how to use the different types of sliders available in Qt:
Qt provides three types of slider-like widgets:
QDial . They all inherit most of their functionality from
QAbstractSlider , and can in theory replace each other in an application since the differences only concern their look and feel. This example shows what they look like, how they work and how their behavior and appearance can be manipulated through their properties.
The example also demonstrates how signals and slots can be used to synchronize the behavior of two or more widgets.
The Sliders example consists of two classes:
SlidersGroupis a custom widget. It combines a
Windowis the main widget combining a
QStackedWidget. In this example, the
QStackedWidgetprovides a stack of two
QGroupBoxcontain several widgets that control the behavior of the slider-like widgets.
First we will review the
Window class, then we will take a look at the
Window Class Definition#
class Window(QWidget): Q_OBJECT # public Window(QWidget parent = None) # private def createControls(title): def resizeEvent(e): horizontalSliders = SlidersGroup() verticalSliders = SlidersGroup() stackedWidget = QStackedWidget() controlsGroup = QGroupBox() minimumLabel = QLabel() maximumLabel = QLabel() valueLabel = QLabel() invertedAppearance = QCheckBox() invertedKeyBindings = QCheckBox() minimumSpinBox = QSpinBox() maximumSpinBox = QSpinBox() valueSpinBox = QSpinBox() orientationCombo = QComboBox() layout = QGridLayout() oldAspectRatio = float()
Window class inherits from
QWidget . It displays the slider widgets and allows the user to set their minimum, maximum and current values and to customize their appearance, key bindings and orientation. We use a private
createControls() function to create the widgets that provide these controlling mechanisms and to connect them to the slider widgets.
Window Class Implementation#
def __init__(self, parent): super().__init__(parent) horizontalSliders = SlidersGroup(Qt.Horizontal, tr("Horizontal")) verticalSliders = SlidersGroup(Qt.Vertical, tr("Vertical")) stackedWidget = QStackedWidget() stackedWidget.addWidget(horizontalSliders) stackedWidget.addWidget(verticalSliders) createControls(tr("Controls"))
In the constructor we first create the two
SlidersGroup widgets that display the slider widgets horizontally and vertically, and add them to the
QStackedWidget provides a stack of widgets where only the top widget is visible. With
createControls() we create a connection from a controlling widget to the
QStackedWidget , making the user able to choose between horizontal and vertical orientation of the slider widgets. The rest of the controlling mechanisms is implemented by the same function call.
Then we connect the
valueSpinBox to each other, so that the slider widgets and the control widget will behave synchronized when the current value of one of them changes. The
valueChanged() signal is emitted with the new value as argument. The
setValue() slot sets the current value of the widget to the new value, and emits
valueChanged() if the new value is different from the old one.
We put the group of control widgets and the stacked widget in a horizontal layout before we initialize the minimum, maximum and current values. The initialization of the current value will propagate to the slider widgets through the connection we made between
valueSpinBox and the
SlidersGroup widgets. The minimum and maximum values propagate through the connections we created with
def createControls(self, title):
In the private
createControls() function, we let a
controlsGroup) display the control widgets. A group box can provide a frame, a title and a keyboard shortcut, and displays various other widgets inside itself. The group of control widgets is composed by two checkboxes, three spin boxes (with labels) and one combobox.
After creating the labels, we create the two checkboxes. Checkboxes are typically used to represent features in an application that can be enabled or disabled. When
invertedAppearance is enabled, the slider values are inverted. The table below shows the appearance for the different slider-like widgets:
Left to right
Right to left
Left to right
Right to left
Bottom to top
Top to bottom
Top to bottom
Bottom to top
It is common to invert the appearance of a vertical
QSlider . A vertical slider that controls volume, for example, will typically go from bottom to top (the non-inverted appearance), whereas a vertical slider that controls the position of an object on screen might go from top to bottom, because screen coordinates go from top to bottom.
invertedKeyBindings option is enabled (corresponding to the
invertedControls property), the slider’s wheel and key events are inverted. The normal key bindings mean that scrolling the mouse wheel “up” or using keys like page up will increase the slider’s current value towards its maximum. Inverted, the same wheel and key events will move the value toward the slider’s minimum. This can be useful if the appearance of a slider is inverted: Some users might expect the keys to still work the same way on the value, whereas others might expect PageUp to mean “up” on the screen.
Note that for horizontal and vertical scroll bars, the key bindings are inverted by default: PageDown increases the current value, and PageUp decreases it.
Then we create the spin boxes.
QSpinBox allows the user to choose a value by clicking the up and down buttons or pressing the Up and Down keys on the keyboard to modify the value currently displayed. The user can also type in the value manually. The spin boxes control the minimum, maximum and current values for the
QScrollBar , and
We create a
QComboBox that allows the user to choose the orientation of the slider widgets. The
QComboBox widget is a combined button and popup list. It provides a means of presenting a list of options to the user in a way that takes up the minimum amount of screen space.
We synchronize the behavior of the control widgets and the slider widgets through their signals and slots. We connect each control widget to both the horizontal and vertical group of slider widgets. We also connect
orientationCombo to the
QStackedWidget , so that the correct “page” is shown. Finally, we lay out the control widgets in a
QGridLayout within the
controlsGroup group box.
SlidersGroup Class Definition#
class SlidersGroup(QGroupBox): Q_OBJECT # public SlidersGroup(Qt.Orientation orientation, QString title, parent = None) # signals def valueChanged(value): # public slots def setValue(value): def setMinimum(value): def setMaximum(value): def invertAppearance(invert): def invertKeyBindings(invert): # private slider = QSlider() scrollBar = QScrollBar() dial = QDial()
SlidersGroup class inherits from
QGroupBox . It provides a frame and a title, and contains a
QSlider , a
QScrollBar and a
We provide a
valueChanged() signal and a public
setValue() slot with equivalent functionality to the ones in
QSpinBox . In addition, we implement several other public slots to set the minimum and maximum value, and invert the slider widgets’ appearance as well as key bindings.
SlidersGroup Class Implementation#
SlidersGroup.SlidersGroup(Qt.Orientation orientation, QString title, parent) = QWidget() super().__init__(title, parent) slider = QSlider(orientation) slider.setFocusPolicy(Qt.StrongFocus) slider.setTickPosition(QSlider.TicksBothSides) slider.setTickInterval(10) slider.setSingleStep(1) scrollBar = QScrollBar(orientation) scrollBar.setFocusPolicy(Qt.StrongFocus) dial = QDial() dial.setFocusPolicy(Qt.StrongFocus) slider.valueChanged.connect(scrollBar.setValue) scrollBar.valueChanged.connect(dial.setValue) dial.valueChanged.connect(slider.setValue)
First we create the slider-like widgets with the appropriate properties. In particular we set the focus policy for each widget.
FocusPolicy is an enum type that defines the various policies a widget can have with respect to acquiring keyboard focus. The
StrongFocus policy means that the widget accepts focus by both tabbing and clicking.
Then we connect the widgets with each other, so that they will stay synchronized when the current value of one of them changes.
valueChanged() signal to the
valueChanged() signal, to notify the other widgets in the application (i.e., the control widgets) of the changed value.
Finally, depending on the
orientation given at the time of construction, we choose and create the layout for the slider widgets within the group box.
def setValue(self, value):
setValue() slot sets the value of the
QSlider . We don’t need to explicitly call
setValue() on the
QDial widgets, since
QSlider will emit the
valueChanged() signal when its value changes, triggering a domino effect.
def setMinimum(self, value): def setMaximum(self, value):
setMaximum() slots are used by the
Window class to set the range of the
QScrollBar , and
def invertAppearance(self, invert): def invertKeyBindings(self, invert):
invertKeyBindings() slots control the child widgets’