QXmlStreamReader

The QXmlStreamReader class provides a fast parser for reading well-formed XML via a simple streaming API. More

Inheritance diagram of PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader

Synopsis

Functions

Detailed Description

QXmlStreamReader is a faster and more convenient replacement for Qt’s own SAX parser (see QXmlSimpleReader ). In some cases it might also be a faster and more convenient alternative for use in applications that would otherwise use a DOM tree (see QDomDocument ). QXmlStreamReader reads data either from a QIODevice (see setDevice() ), or from a raw QByteArray (see addData() ).

Qt provides QXmlStreamWriter for writing XML.

The basic concept of a stream reader is to report an XML document as a stream of tokens, similar to SAX. The main difference between QXmlStreamReader and SAX is how these XML tokens are reported. With SAX, the application must provide handlers (callback functions) that receive so-called XML events from the parser at the parser’s convenience. With QXmlStreamReader , the application code itself drives the loop and pulls tokens from the reader, one after another, as it needs them. This is done by calling readNext() , where the reader reads from the input stream until it completes the next token, at which point it returns the tokenType() . A set of convenient functions including isStartElement() and text() can then be used to examine the token to obtain information about what has been read. The big advantage of this pulling approach is the possibility to build recursive descent parsers with it, meaning you can split your XML parsing code easily into different methods or classes. This makes it easy to keep track of the application’s own state when parsing XML.

A typical loop with QXmlStreamReader looks like this:

xml = QXmlStreamReader()
...
while not xml.atEnd():
    xml.readNext();
    ... # do processing

if xml.hasError():
    ... # do error handling

QXmlStreamReader is a well-formed XML 1.0 parser that does not include external parsed entities. As long as no error occurs, the application code can thus be assured that the data provided by the stream reader satisfies the W3C’s criteria for well-formed XML. For example, you can be certain that all tags are indeed nested and closed properly, that references to internal entities have been replaced with the correct replacement text, and that attributes have been normalized or added according to the internal subset of the DTD.

If an error occurs while parsing, atEnd() and hasError() return true, and error() returns the error that occurred. The functions errorString() , lineNumber() , columnNumber() , and characterOffset() are for constructing an appropriate error or warning message. To simplify application code, QXmlStreamReader contains a raiseError() mechanism that lets you raise custom errors that trigger the same error handling described.

The QXmlStream Bookmarks Example illustrates how to use the recursive descent technique to read an XML bookmark file (XBEL) with a stream reader.

Namespaces

QXmlStream understands and resolves XML namespaces. E.g. in case of a StartElement , namespaceUri() returns the namespace the element is in, and name() returns the element’s local name. The combination of namespaceUri and name uniquely identifies an element. If a namespace prefix was not declared in the XML entities parsed by the reader, the namespaceUri is empty.

If you parse XML data that does not utilize namespaces according to the XML specification or doesn’t use namespaces at all, you can use the element’s qualifiedName() instead. A qualified name is the element’s prefix() followed by colon followed by the element’s local name() - exactly like the element appears in the raw XML data. Since the mapping namespaceUri to prefix is neither unique nor universal, qualifiedName() should be avoided for namespace-compliant XML data.

In order to parse standalone documents that do use undeclared namespace prefixes, you can turn off namespace processing completely with the namespaceProcessing property.

Incremental Parsing

QXmlStreamReader is an incremental parser. It can handle the case where the document can’t be parsed all at once because it arrives in chunks (e.g. from multiple files, or over a network connection). When the reader runs out of data before the complete document has been parsed, it reports a PrematureEndOfDocumentError . When more data arrives, either because of a call to addData() or because more data is available through the network device() , the reader recovers from the PrematureEndOfDocumentError error and continues parsing the new data with the next call to readNext() .

For example, if your application reads data from the network using a network access manager , you would issue a network request to the manager and receive a network reply in return. Since a QNetworkReply is a QIODevice , you connect its readyRead() signal to a custom slot, e.g. slotReadyRead() in the code snippet shown in the discussion for QNetworkAccessManager . In this slot, you read all available data with readAll() and pass it to the XML stream reader using addData() . Then you call your custom parsing function that reads the XML events from the reader.

Performance and Memory Consumption

QXmlStreamReader is memory-conservative by design, since it doesn’t store the entire XML document tree in memory, but only the current token at the time it is reported. In addition, QXmlStreamReader avoids the many small string allocations that it normally takes to map an XML document to a convenient and Qt-ish API. It does this by reporting all string data as QStringRef rather than real QString objects. QStringRef is a thin wrapper around QString substrings that provides a subset of the QString API without the memory allocation and reference-counting overhead. Calling toString() on any of those objects returns an equivalent real QString object.

class QXmlStreamReader

QXmlStreamReader(device)

QXmlStreamReader(data)

QXmlStreamReader(data)

QXmlStreamReader(data)

param device

QIODevice

param data

QByteArray

Constructs a stream reader.

Creates a new stream reader that reads from device .

See also

setDevice() clear()

Creates a new stream reader that reads from data .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.TokenType

This enum specifies the type of token the reader just read.

Constant

Description

QXmlStreamReader.NoToken

The reader has not yet read anything.

QXmlStreamReader.Invalid

An error has occurred, reported in error() and errorString() .

QXmlStreamReader.StartDocument

The reader reports the XML version number in documentVersion() , and the encoding as specified in the XML document in documentEncoding() . If the document is declared standalone, isStandaloneDocument() returns true; otherwise it returns false.

QXmlStreamReader.EndDocument

The reader reports the end of the document.

QXmlStreamReader.StartElement

The reader reports the start of an element with namespaceUri() and name() . Empty elements are also reported as , followed directly by . The convenience function readElementText() can be called to concatenate all content until the corresponding . Attributes are reported in attributes() , namespace declarations in namespaceDeclarations() .

QXmlStreamReader.EndElement

The reader reports the end of an element with namespaceUri() and name() .

QXmlStreamReader.Characters

The reader reports characters in text() . If the characters are all white-space, isWhitespace() returns true. If the characters stem from a CDATA section, isCDATA() returns true.

QXmlStreamReader.Comment

The reader reports a comment in text() .

QXmlStreamReader.DTD

The reader reports a DTD in text() , notation declarations in notationDeclarations() , and entity declarations in entityDeclarations() . Details of the DTD declaration are reported in in dtdName() , dtdPublicId() , and dtdSystemId() .

QXmlStreamReader.EntityReference

The reader reports an entity reference that could not be resolved. The name of the reference is reported in name() , the replacement text in text() .

QXmlStreamReader.ProcessingInstruction

The reader reports a processing instruction in processingInstructionTarget() and processingInstructionData() .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.ReadElementTextBehaviour

This enum specifies the different behaviours of readElementText() .

Constant

Description

QXmlStreamReader.ErrorOnUnexpectedElement

Raise an UnexpectedElementError and return what was read so far when a child element is encountered.

QXmlStreamReader.IncludeChildElements

Recursively include the text from child elements.

QXmlStreamReader.SkipChildElements

Skip child elements.

New in version 4.6.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.Error

This enum specifies different error cases

Constant

Description

QXmlStreamReader.NoError

No error has occurred.

QXmlStreamReader.CustomError

A custom error has been raised with raiseError()

QXmlStreamReader.NotWellFormedError

The parser internally raised an error due to the read XML not being well-formed.

QXmlStreamReader.PrematureEndOfDocumentError

The input stream ended before a well-formed XML document was parsed. Recovery from this error is possible if more XML arrives in the stream, either by calling addData() or by waiting for it to arrive on the device() .

QXmlStreamReader.UnexpectedElementError

The parser encountered an element that was different to those it expected.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.addData(data)
Parameters

dataQByteArray

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.addData(data)
Parameters

data – unicode

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.addData(data)
Parameters

data – str

Adds more data for the reader to read. This function does nothing if the reader has a device() .

See also

readNext() clear()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.addExtraNamespaceDeclaration(extraNamespaceDeclaraction)
Parameters

extraNamespaceDeclaractionQXmlStreamNamespaceDeclaration

Adds an extraNamespaceDeclaration . The declaration will be valid for children of the current element, or - should the function be called before any elements are read - for the entire XML document.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.addExtraNamespaceDeclarations(extraNamespaceDeclaractions)
Parameters

extraNamespaceDeclaractions

Adds a vector of declarations specified by extraNamespaceDeclarations .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.atEnd()
Return type

bool

Returns true if the reader has read until the end of the XML document, or if an error() has occurred and reading has been aborted. Otherwise, it returns false .

When and hasError() return true and error() returns PrematureEndOfDocumentError , it means the XML has been well-formed so far, but a complete XML document has not been parsed. The next chunk of XML can be added with addData() , if the XML is being read from a QByteArray , or by waiting for more data to arrive if the XML is being read from a QIODevice . Either way, will return false once more data is available.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.attributes()
Return type

QXmlStreamAttributes

Returns the attributes of a StartElement .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.characterOffset()
Return type

qint64

Returns the current character offset, starting with 0.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.clear()

Removes any device() or data from the reader and resets its internal state to the initial state.

See also

addData()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.columnNumber()
Return type

qint64

Returns the current column number, starting with 0.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.device()
Return type

QIODevice

Returns the current device associated with the QXmlStreamReader , or None if no device has been assigned.

See also

setDevice()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.documentEncoding()
Return type

QStringRef

If the tokenType() is StartDocument , this function returns the encoding string as specified in the XML declaration. Otherwise an empty string is returned.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.documentVersion()
Return type

QStringRef

If the tokenType() is StartDocument , this function returns the version string as specified in the XML declaration. Otherwise an empty string is returned.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.dtdName()
Return type

QStringRef

If the tokenType() is DTD , this function returns the DTD’s name. Otherwise an empty string is returned.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.dtdPublicId()
Return type

QStringRef

If the tokenType() is DTD , this function returns the DTD’s public identifier. Otherwise an empty string is returned.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.dtdSystemId()
Return type

QStringRef

If the tokenType() is DTD , this function returns the DTD’s system identifier. Otherwise an empty string is returned.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.entityDeclarations()
Return type

If the tokenType() is DTD , this function returns the DTD’s unparsed (external) entity declarations. Otherwise an empty vector is returned.

The QXmlStreamEntityDeclarations class is defined to be a QVector of QXmlStreamEntityDeclaration .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.entityResolver()
Return type

QXmlStreamEntityResolver

Returns the entity resolver, or None if there is no entity resolver.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.error()
Return type

Error

Returns the type of the current error, or NoError if no error occurred.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.errorString()
Return type

unicode

Returns the error message that was set with raiseError() .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.hasError()
Return type

bool

Returns true if an error has occurred, otherwise false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isCDATA()
Return type

bool

Returns true if the reader reports characters that stem from a CDATA section; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isCharacters()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals Characters ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isComment()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals Comment ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isDTD()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals DTD ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isEndDocument()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals EndDocument ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isEndElement()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals EndElement ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isEntityReference()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals EntityReference ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isProcessingInstruction()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals ProcessingInstruction ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isStandaloneDocument()
Return type

bool

Returns true if this document has been declared standalone in the XML declaration; otherwise returns false .

If no XML declaration has been parsed, this function returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isStartDocument()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals StartDocument ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isStartElement()
Return type

bool

Returns true if tokenType() equals StartElement ; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.isWhitespace()
Return type

bool

Returns true if the reader reports characters that only consist of white-space; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.lineNumber()
Return type

qint64

Returns the current line number, starting with 1.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.name()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the local name of a StartElement , EndElement , or an EntityReference .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.namespaceDeclarations()
Return type

If the tokenType() is StartElement , this function returns the element’s namespace declarations. Otherwise an empty vector is returned.

The QXmlStreamNamespaceDeclarations class is defined to be a QVector of QXmlStreamNamespaceDeclaration .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.namespaceProcessing()
Return type

bool

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.namespaceUri()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the of a StartElement or EndElement .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.notationDeclarations()
Return type

If the tokenType() is DTD , this function returns the DTD’s notation declarations. Otherwise an empty vector is returned.

The QXmlStreamNotationDeclarations class is defined to be a QVector of QXmlStreamNotationDeclaration .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.prefix()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the prefix of a StartElement or EndElement .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.processingInstructionData()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the data of a ProcessingInstruction .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.processingInstructionTarget()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the target of a ProcessingInstruction .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.qualifiedName()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the qualified name of a StartElement or EndElement ;

A qualified name is the raw name of an element in the XML data. It consists of the namespace prefix, followed by colon, followed by the element’s local name. Since the namespace prefix is not unique (the same prefix can point to different namespaces and different prefixes can point to the same namespace), you shouldn’t use , but the resolved namespaceUri() and the attribute’s local name() .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.raiseError([message=""])
Parameters

message – unicode

Raises a custom error with an optional error message .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.readElementText([behaviour=ErrorOnUnexpectedElement])
Parameters

behaviourReadElementTextBehaviour

Return type

unicode

Convenience function to be called in case a StartElement was read. Reads until the corresponding EndElement and returns all text in-between. In case of no error, the current token (see tokenType() ) after having called this function is EndElement .

The function concatenates text() when it reads either Characters or EntityReference tokens, but skips ProcessingInstruction and Comment . If the current token is not StartElement , an empty string is returned.

The behaviour defines what happens in case anything else is read before reaching EndElement . The function can include the text from child elements (useful for example for HTML), ignore child elements, or raise an UnexpectedElementError and return what was read so far (default).

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.readNext()
Return type

TokenType

Reads the next token and returns its type.

With one exception, once an error() is reported by , further reading of the XML stream is not possible. Then atEnd() returns true , hasError() returns true , and this function returns Invalid .

The exception is when error() returns PrematureEndOfDocumentError . This error is reported when the end of an otherwise well-formed chunk of XML is reached, but the chunk doesn’t represent a complete XML document. In that case, parsing can be resumed by calling addData() to add the next chunk of XML, when the stream is being read from a QByteArray , or by waiting for more data to arrive when the stream is being read from a device() .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.readNextStartElement()
Return type

bool

Reads until the next start element within the current element. Returns true when a start element was reached. When the end element was reached, or when an error occurred, false is returned.

The current element is the element matching the most recently parsed start element of which a matching end element has not yet been reached. When the parser has reached the end element, the current element becomes the parent element.

This is a convenience function for when you’re only concerned with parsing XML elements. The QXmlStream Bookmarks Example makes extensive use of this function.

See also

readNext()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.setDevice(device)
Parameters

deviceQIODevice

Sets the current device to device . Setting the device resets the stream to its initial state.

See also

device() clear()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.setEntityResolver(resolver)
Parameters

resolverQXmlStreamEntityResolver

Makes resolver the new entityResolver() .

The stream reader does not take ownership of the resolver. It’s the callers responsibility to ensure that the resolver is valid during the entire life-time of the stream reader object, or until another resolver or None is set.

See also

entityResolver()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.setNamespaceProcessing(arg__1)
Parameters

arg__1bool

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.skipCurrentElement()

Reads until the end of the current element, skipping any child nodes. This function is useful for skipping unknown elements.

The current element is the element matching the most recently parsed start element of which a matching end element has not yet been reached. When the parser has reached the end element, the current element becomes the parent element.

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.text()
Return type

QStringRef

Returns the text of Characters , Comment , DTD , or EntityReference .

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.tokenString()
Return type

unicode

Returns the reader’s current token as string.

See also

tokenType()

PySide2.QtCore.QXmlStreamReader.tokenType()
Return type

TokenType

Returns the type of the current token.

The current token can also be queried with the convenience functions isStartDocument() , isEndDocument() , isStartElement() , isEndElement() , isCharacters() , isComment() , isDTD() , isEntityReference() , and isProcessingInstruction() .

See also

tokenString()