QKeySequence

The QKeySequence class encapsulates a key sequence as used by shortcuts. More

Inheritance diagram of PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence

Synopsis

Functions

Static functions

Detailed Description

In its most common form, a key sequence describes a combination of keys that must be used together to perform some action. Key sequences are used with QAction objects to specify which keyboard shortcuts can be used to trigger actions.

Key sequences can be constructed for use as keyboard shortcuts in three different ways:

  • For standard shortcuts, a standard key can be used to request the platform-specific key sequence associated with each shortcut.

  • For custom shortcuts, human-readable strings such as “Ctrl+X” can be used, and these can be translated into the appropriate shortcuts for users of different languages. Translations are made in the ” QShortcut ” context.

  • For hard-coded shortcuts, integer key codes can be specified with a combination of values defined by the Key and Modifier enum values. Each key code consists of a single Key value and zero or more modifiers, such as SHIFT , CTRL , ALT and META .

For example, Ctrl P might be a sequence used as a shortcut for printing a document, and can be specified in any of the following ways:

QKeySequence(QKeySequence.Print)
QKeySequence(tr("Ctrl+P"))
QKeySequence(tr("Ctrl+p"))
QKeySequence(Qt.CTRL + Qt.Key_P)

Note that, for letters, the case used in the specification string does not matter. In the above examples, the user does not need to hold down the Shift key to activate a shortcut specified with “Ctrl+P”. However, for other keys, the use of Shift as an unspecified extra modifier key can lead to confusion for users of an application whose keyboards have different layouts to those used by the developers. See the Keyboard Layout Issues section below for more details.

It is preferable to use standard shortcuts where possible. When creating key sequences for non-standard shortcuts, you should use human-readable strings in preference to hard-coded integer values.

QKeySequence objects can be cast to a QString to obtain a human-readable translated version of the sequence. Similarly, the toString() function produces human-readable strings for use in menus. On macOS, the appropriate symbols are used to describe keyboard shortcuts using special keys on the Macintosh keyboard.

An alternative way to specify hard-coded key codes is to use the Unicode code point of the character; for example, ‘A’ gives the same key sequence as Key_A .

Note

On macOS, references to “Ctrl”, CTRL , Key_Control and ControlModifier correspond to the Command keys on the Macintosh keyboard, and references to “Meta”, META , Key_Meta and MetaModifier correspond to the Control keys. Developers on macOS can use the same shortcut descriptions across all platforms, and their applications will automatically work as expected on macOS.

Standard Shortcuts

QKeySequence defines many standard keyboard shortcuts to reduce the amount of effort required when setting up actions in a typical application. The table below shows some common key sequences that are often used for these standard shortcuts by applications on four widely-used platforms. Note that on macOS, the Ctrl value corresponds to the Command keys on the Macintosh keyboard, and the Meta value corresponds to the Control keys.

StandardKey

Windows

macOS

KDE Plasma

GNOME

HelpContents

F1

Ctrl+?

F1

F1

WhatsThis

Shift+F1

Shift+F1

Shift+F1

Shift+F1

Open

Ctrl+O

Ctrl+O

Ctrl+O

Ctrl+O

Close

Ctrl+F4, Ctrl+W

Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4

Ctrl+W

Ctrl+W

Save

Ctrl+S

Ctrl+S

Ctrl+S

Ctrl+S

Quit

Ctrl+Q

Ctrl+Q

Ctrl+Q

SaveAs

Ctrl+Shift+S

Ctrl+Shift+S

New

Ctrl+N

Ctrl+N

Ctrl+N

Ctrl+N

Delete

Del

Del, Meta+D

Del, Ctrl+D

Del, Ctrl+D

Cut

Ctrl+X, Shift+Del

Ctrl+X, Meta+K

Ctrl+X, F20, Shift+Del

Ctrl+X, F20, Shift+Del

Copy

Ctrl+C, Ctrl+Ins

Ctrl+C

Ctrl+C, F16, Ctrl+Ins

Ctrl+C, F16, Ctrl+Ins

Paste

Ctrl+V, Shift+Ins

Ctrl+V, Meta+Y

Ctrl+V, F18, Shift+Ins

Ctrl+V, F18, Shift+Ins

Preferences

Ctrl+,

Undo

Ctrl+Z, Alt+Backspace

Ctrl+Z

Ctrl+Z, F14

Ctrl+Z, F14

Redo

Ctrl+Y, Shift+Ctrl+Z, Alt+Shift+Backspace

Ctrl+Shift+Z

Ctrl+Shift+Z

Ctrl+Shift+Z

Back

Alt+Left, Backspace

Ctrl+[

Alt+Left

Alt+Left

Forward

Alt+Right, Shift+Backspace

Ctrl+]

Alt+Right

Alt+Right

Refresh

F5

F5

F5

Ctrl+R, F5

ZoomIn

Ctrl+Plus

Ctrl+Plus

Ctrl+Plus

Ctrl+Plus

ZoomOut

Ctrl+Minus

Ctrl+Minus

Ctrl+Minus

Ctrl+Minus

FullScreen

F11, Alt+Enter

Ctrl+Meta+F

F11, Ctrl+Shift+F

Ctrl+F11

Print

Ctrl+P

Ctrl+P

Ctrl+P

Ctrl+P

AddTab

Ctrl+T

Ctrl+T

Ctrl+Shift+N, Ctrl+T

Ctrl+T

NextChild

Ctrl+Tab, Forward, Ctrl+F6

Ctrl+}, Forward, Ctrl+Tab

Ctrl+Tab, Forward, Ctrl+Comma

Ctrl+Tab, Forward

PreviousChild

Ctrl+Shift+Tab, Back, Ctrl+Shift+F6

Ctrl+{, Back, Ctrl+Shift+Tab

Ctrl+Shift+Tab, Back, Ctrl+Period

Ctrl+Shift+Tab, Back

Find

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+F

FindNext

F3, Ctrl+G

Ctrl+G

F3

Ctrl+G, F3

FindPrevious

Shift+F3, Ctrl+Shift+G

Ctrl+Shift+G

Shift+F3

Ctrl+Shift+G, Shift+F3

Replace

Ctrl+H

(none)

Ctrl+R

Ctrl+H

SelectAll

Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A

Ctrl+A

Deselect

Ctrl+Shift+A

Ctrl+Shift+A

Bold

Ctrl+B

Ctrl+B

Ctrl+B

Ctrl+B

Italic

Ctrl+I

Ctrl+I

Ctrl+I

Ctrl+I

Underline

Ctrl+U

Ctrl+U

Ctrl+U

Ctrl+U

MoveToNextChar

Right

Right, Meta+F

Right

Right

MoveToPreviousChar

Left

Left, Meta+B

Left

Left

MoveToNextWord

Ctrl+Right

Alt+Right

Ctrl+Right

Ctrl+Right

MoveToPreviousWord

Ctrl+Left

Alt+Left

Ctrl+Left

Ctrl+Left

MoveToNextLine

Down

Down, Meta+N

Down

Down

MoveToPreviousLine

Up

Up, Meta+P

Up

Up

MoveToNextPage

PgDown

PgDown, Alt+PgDown, Meta+Down, Meta+PgDown, Meta+V

PgDown

PgDown

MoveToPreviousPage

PgUp

PgUp, Alt+PgUp, Meta+Up, Meta+PgUp

PgUp

PgUp

MoveToStartOfLine

Home

Ctrl+Left, Meta+Left

Home

Home

MoveToEndOfLine

End

Ctrl+Right, Meta+Right

End, Ctrl+E

End, Ctrl+E

MoveToStartOfBlock

(none)

Alt+Up, Meta+A

(none)

(none)

MoveToEndOfBlock

(none)

Alt+Down, Meta+E

(none)

(none)

MoveToStartOfDocument

Ctrl+Home

Ctrl+Up, Home

Ctrl+Home

Ctrl+Home

MoveToEndOfDocument

Ctrl+End

Ctrl+Down, End

Ctrl+End

Ctrl+End

SelectNextChar

Shift+Right

Shift+Right

Shift+Right

Shift+Right

SelectPreviousChar

Shift+Left

Shift+Left

Shift+Left

Shift+Left

SelectNextWord

Ctrl+Shift+Right

Alt+Shift+Right

Ctrl+Shift+Right

Ctrl+Shift+Right

SelectPreviousWord

Ctrl+Shift+Left

Alt+Shift+Left

Ctrl+Shift+Left

Ctrl+Shift+Left

SelectNextLine

Shift+Down

Shift+Down

Shift+Down

Shift+Down

SelectPreviousLine

Shift+Up

Shift+Up

Shift+Up

Shift+Up

SelectNextPage

Shift+PgDown

Shift+PgDown

Shift+PgDown

Shift+PgDown

SelectPreviousPage

Shift+PgUp

Shift+PgUp

Shift+PgUp

Shift+PgUp

SelectStartOfLine

Shift+Home

Ctrl+Shift+Left

Shift+Home

Shift+Home

SelectEndOfLine

Shift+End

Ctrl+Shift+Right

Shift+End

Shift+End

SelectStartOfBlock

(none)

Alt+Shift+Up, Meta+Shift+A

(none)

(none)

SelectEndOfBlock

(none)

Alt+Shift+Down, Meta+Shift+E

(none)

(none)

SelectStartOfDocument

Ctrl+Shift+Home

Ctrl+Shift+Up, Shift+Home

Ctrl+Shift+Home

Ctrl+Shift+Home

SelectEndOfDocument

Ctrl+Shift+End

Ctrl+Shift+Down, Shift+End

Ctrl+Shift+End

Ctrl+Shift+End

DeleteStartOfWord

Ctrl+Backspace

Alt+Backspace

Ctrl+Backspace

Ctrl+Backspace

DeleteEndOfWord

Ctrl+Del

(none)

Ctrl+Del

Ctrl+Del

DeleteEndOfLine

(none)

(none)

Ctrl+K

Ctrl+K

DeleteCompleteLine

(none)

(none)

Ctrl+U

Ctrl+U

InsertParagraphSeparator

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

InsertLineSeparator

Shift+Enter

Meta+Enter, Meta+O

Shift+Enter

Shift+Enter

Backspace

(none)

Meta+H

(none)

(none)

Cancel

Escape

Escape, Ctrl+.

Escape

Escape

Note that, since the key sequences used for the standard shortcuts differ between platforms, you still need to test your shortcuts on each platform to ensure that you do not unintentionally assign the same key sequence to many actions.

Keyboard Layout Issues

Many key sequence specifications are chosen by developers based on the layout of certain types of keyboard, rather than choosing keys that represent the first letter of an action’s name, such as Ctrl S (“Ctrl+S”) or Ctrl C (“Ctrl+C”). Additionally, because certain symbols can only be entered with the help of modifier keys on certain keyboard layouts, key sequences intended for use with one keyboard layout may map to a different key, map to no keys at all, or require an additional modifier key to be used on different keyboard layouts.

For example, the shortcuts, Ctrl plus and Ctrl minus, are often used as shortcuts for zoom operations in graphics applications, and these may be specified as “Ctrl++” and “Ctrl+-” respectively. However, the way these shortcuts are specified and interpreted depends on the keyboard layout. Users of Norwegian keyboards will note that the + and - keys are not adjacent on the keyboard, but will still be able to activate both shortcuts without needing to press the Shift key. However, users with British keyboards will need to hold down the Shift key to enter the + symbol, making the shortcut effectively the same as “Ctrl+Shift+=”.

Although some developers might resort to fully specifying all the modifiers they use on their keyboards to activate a shortcut, this will also result in unexpected behavior for users of different keyboard layouts.

For example, a developer using a British keyboard may decide to specify “Ctrl+Shift+=” as the key sequence in order to create a shortcut that coincidentally behaves in the same way as Ctrl plus. However, the = key needs to be accessed using the Shift key on Norwegian keyboard, making the required shortcut effectively Ctrl Shift Shift = (an impossible key combination).

As a result, both human-readable strings and hard-coded key codes can both be problematic to use when specifying a key sequence that can be used on a variety of different keyboard layouts. Only the use of standard shortcuts guarantees that the user will be able to use the shortcuts that the developer intended.

Despite this, we can address this issue by ensuring that human-readable strings are used, making it possible for translations of key sequences to be made for users of different languages. This approach will be successful for users whose keyboards have the most typical layout for the language they are using.

GNU Emacs Style Key Sequences

Key sequences similar to those used in GNU Emacs , allowing up to four key codes, can be created by using the multiple argument constructor, or by passing a human-readable string of comma-separated key sequences.

For example, the key sequence, Ctrl X followed by Ctrl C, can be specified using either of the following ways:

QKeySequence(tr("Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C"))
QKeySequence(Qt.CTRL + Qt.Key_X, Qt.CTRL + Qt.Key_C)

Warning

A QApplication instance must have been constructed before a QKeySequence is created; otherwise, your application may crash.

See also

QShortcut

class QKeySequence

QKeySequence(key)

QKeySequence(ks)

QKeySequence(key[, format=NativeText])

QKeySequence(k1[, k2=0[, k3=0[, k4=0]]])

param k1

int

param k2

int

param k3

int

param k4

int

param format

SequenceFormat

param ks

QKeySequence

param key

StandardKey

Constructs an empty key sequence.

Constructs a QKeySequence object for the given key . The result will depend on the currently running platform.

The resulting object will be based on the first element in the list of key bindings for the key .

Creates a key sequence from the key string, based on format .

For example “Ctrl+O” gives CTRL+’O’. The strings “Ctrl”, “Shift”, “Alt” and “Meta” are recognized, as well as their translated equivalents in the ” QShortcut ” context (using tr() ).

Up to four key codes may be entered by separating them with commas, e.g. “Alt+X,Ctrl+S,Q”.

This constructor is typically used with tr (), so that shortcut keys can be replaced in translations:

file = QMenu(self)
file.addAction(tr("&Open..."), self, SLOT("open()"),
               QKeySequence(tr("Ctrl+O", "File|Open")))

Note the “File|Open” translator comment. It is by no means necessary, but it provides some context for the human translator.

Constructs a key sequence with up to 4 keys k1 , k2 , k3 and k4 .

The key codes are listed in Key and can be combined with modifiers (see Modifier ) such as SHIFT , CTRL , ALT , or META .

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.StandardKey

This enum represent standard key bindings. They can be used to assign platform dependent keyboard shortcuts to a QAction .

Note that the key bindings are platform dependent. The currently bound shortcuts can be queried using keyBindings() .

Constant

Description

QKeySequence.AddTab

Add new tab.

QKeySequence.Back

Navigate back.

QKeySequence.Backspace

Delete previous character.

QKeySequence.Bold

Bold text.

QKeySequence.Close

Close document/tab.

QKeySequence.Copy

Copy.

QKeySequence.Cut

Cut.

QKeySequence.Delete

Delete.

QKeySequence.DeleteEndOfLine

Delete end of line.

QKeySequence.DeleteEndOfWord

Delete word from the end of the cursor.

QKeySequence.DeleteStartOfWord

Delete the beginning of a word up to the cursor.

QKeySequence.DeleteCompleteLine

Delete the entire line.

QKeySequence.Find

Find in document.

QKeySequence.FindNext

Find next result.

QKeySequence.FindPrevious

Find previous result.

QKeySequence.Forward

Navigate forward.

QKeySequence.HelpContents

Open help contents.

QKeySequence.InsertLineSeparator

Insert a new line.

QKeySequence.InsertParagraphSeparator

Insert a new paragraph.

QKeySequence.Italic

Italic text.

QKeySequence.MoveToEndOfBlock

Move cursor to end of block. This shortcut is only used on the macOS.

QKeySequence.MoveToEndOfDocument

Move cursor to end of document.

QKeySequence.MoveToEndOfLine

Move cursor to end of line.

QKeySequence.MoveToNextChar

Move cursor to next character.

QKeySequence.MoveToNextLine

Move cursor to next line.

QKeySequence.MoveToNextPage

Move cursor to next page.

QKeySequence.MoveToNextWord

Move cursor to next word.

QKeySequence.MoveToPreviousChar

Move cursor to previous character.

QKeySequence.MoveToPreviousLine

Move cursor to previous line.

QKeySequence.MoveToPreviousPage

Move cursor to previous page.

QKeySequence.MoveToPreviousWord

Move cursor to previous word.

QKeySequence.MoveToStartOfBlock

Move cursor to start of a block. This shortcut is only used on macOS.

QKeySequence.MoveToStartOfDocument

Move cursor to start of document.

QKeySequence.MoveToStartOfLine

Move cursor to start of line.

QKeySequence.New

Create new document.

QKeySequence.NextChild

Navigate to next tab or child window.

QKeySequence.Open

Open document.

QKeySequence.Paste

Paste.

QKeySequence.Preferences

Open the preferences dialog.

QKeySequence.PreviousChild

Navigate to previous tab or child window.

QKeySequence.Print

Print document.

QKeySequence.Quit

Quit the application.

QKeySequence.Redo

Redo.

QKeySequence.Refresh

Refresh or reload current document.

QKeySequence.Replace

Find and replace.

QKeySequence.SaveAs

Save document after prompting the user for a file name.

QKeySequence.Save

Save document.

QKeySequence.SelectAll

Select all text.

QKeySequence.Deselect

Deselect text. Since 5.1

QKeySequence.SelectEndOfBlock

Extend selection to the end of a text block. This shortcut is only used on macOS.

QKeySequence.SelectEndOfDocument

Extend selection to end of document.

QKeySequence.SelectEndOfLine

Extend selection to end of line.

QKeySequence.SelectNextChar

Extend selection to next character.

QKeySequence.SelectNextLine

Extend selection to next line.

QKeySequence.SelectNextPage

Extend selection to next page.

QKeySequence.SelectNextWord

Extend selection to next word.

QKeySequence.SelectPreviousChar

Extend selection to previous character.

QKeySequence.SelectPreviousLine

Extend selection to previous line.

QKeySequence.SelectPreviousPage

Extend selection to previous page.

QKeySequence.SelectPreviousWord

Extend selection to previous word.

QKeySequence.SelectStartOfBlock

Extend selection to the start of a text block. This shortcut is only used on macOS.

QKeySequence.SelectStartOfDocument

Extend selection to start of document.

QKeySequence.SelectStartOfLine

Extend selection to start of line.

QKeySequence.Underline

Underline text.

QKeySequence.Undo

Undo.

QKeySequence.UnknownKey

Unbound key.

QKeySequence.WhatsThis

Activate “what’s this”.

QKeySequence.ZoomIn

Zoom in.

QKeySequence.ZoomOut

Zoom out.

QKeySequence.FullScreen

Toggle the window state to/from full screen.

QKeySequence.Cancel

Cancel the current operation.

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.SequenceFormat

Constant

Description

QKeySequence.NativeText

The key sequence as a platform specific string. This means that it will be shown translated and on the Mac it will resemble a key sequence from the menu bar. This enum is best used when you want to display the string to the user.

QKeySequence.PortableText

The key sequence is given in a “portable” format, suitable for reading and writing to a file. In many cases, it will look similar to the native text on Windows and X11.

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.SequenceMatch

Constant

Description

QKeySequence.NoMatch

The key sequences are different; not even partially matching.

QKeySequence.PartialMatch

The key sequences match partially, but are not the same.

QKeySequence.ExactMatch

The key sequences are the same.

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__getitem__()
PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__reduce__()
Return type

PyObject

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__repr__()
Return type

PyObject

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.count()
Return type

int

Returns the number of keys in the key sequence. The maximum is 4.

static PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.fromString(str[, format=PortableText])
Parameters
Return type

QKeySequence

Return a QKeySequence from the string str based on format .

See also

toString()

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.isEmpty()
Return type

bool

Returns true if the key sequence is empty; otherwise returns false.

static PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.keyBindings(key)
Parameters

keyStandardKey

Return type

Returns a list of key bindings for the given key . The result of calling this function will vary based on the target platform. The first element of the list indicates the primary shortcut for the given platform. If the result contains more than one result, these can be considered alternative shortcuts on the same platform for the given key .

static PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.listFromString(str[, format=PortableText])
Parameters
Return type

Return a list of QKeySequence from the string str based on format .

static PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.listToString(list[, format=PortableText])
Parameters
Return type

unicode

Return a string representation of list based on format .

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.matches(seq)
Parameters

seqQKeySequence

Return type

SequenceMatch

Matches the sequence with seq . Returns ExactMatch if successful, PartialMatch if seq matches incompletely, and NoMatch if the sequences have nothing in common. Returns NoMatch if seq is shorter.

static PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.mnemonic(text)
Parameters

text – unicode

Return type

QKeySequence

Returns the shortcut key sequence for the mnemonic in text , or an empty key sequence if no mnemonics are found.

For example, mnemonic(“E&xit”) returns Qt::ALT+Qt::Key_X , mnemonic(“&Quit”) returns ALT+Key_Q , and mnemonic(“Quit”) returns an empty QKeySequence .

We provide a list of common mnemonics in English. At the time of writing, Microsoft and Open Group do not appear to have issued equivalent recommendations for other languages.

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__ne__(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Return type

bool

Returns true if this key sequence is not equal to the other key sequence; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__lt__(ks)
Parameters

ksQKeySequence

Return type

bool

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__le__(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Return type

bool

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__eq__(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Return type

bool

Returns true if this key sequence is equal to the other key sequence; otherwise returns false .

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__gt__(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Return type

bool

Returns true if this key sequence is larger than the other key sequence; otherwise returns false .

See also

operator==() operator!=() operator operator operator>=()

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.__ge__(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Return type

bool

Returns true if this key sequence is larger or equal to the other key sequence; otherwise returns false .

See also

operator==() operator!=() operator operator>() operator

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.swap(other)
Parameters

otherQKeySequence

Swaps key sequence other with this key sequence. This operation is very fast and never fails.

PySide2.QtGui.QKeySequence.toString([format=PortableText])
Parameters

formatSequenceFormat

Return type

unicode

Return a string representation of the key sequence, based on format .

For example, the value CTRL + Key_O results in “Ctrl+O”. If the key sequence has multiple key codes, each is separated by commas in the string returned, such as “Alt+X, Ctrl+Y, Z”. The strings, “Ctrl”, “Shift”, etc. are translated using tr() in the ” QShortcut ” context.

If the key sequence has no keys, an empty string is returned.

On macOS, the string returned resembles the sequence that is shown in the menu bar if format is NativeText ; otherwise, the string uses the “portable” format, suitable for writing to a file.

See also

fromString()