QCanBusFrame Class

QCanBusFrame is a container class representing a single CAN frame. More...

Header: #include <QCanBusFrame>
CMake: find_package(Qt6 REQUIRED COMPONENTS SerialBus)
target_link_libraries(mytarget PRIVATE Qt6::SerialBus)
qmake: QT += serialbus

Public Types

class TimeStamp
enum FrameError { NoError, TransmissionTimeoutError, LostArbitrationError, ControllerError, ProtocolViolationError, …, AnyError }
flags FrameErrors
enum FrameType { UnknownFrame, DataFrame, ErrorFrame, RemoteRequestFrame, InvalidFrame }

Public Functions

QCanBusFrame(QCanBusFrame::FrameType type = DataFrame)
QCanBusFrame(QCanBusFrame::FrameId identifier, const QByteArray &data)
QCanBusFrame::FrameErrors error() const
QCanBusFrame::FrameId frameId() const
QCanBusFrame::FrameType frameType() const
bool hasBitrateSwitch() const
bool hasErrorStateIndicator() const
bool hasExtendedFrameFormat() const
bool hasFlexibleDataRateFormat() const
bool hasLocalEcho() const
bool isValid() const
QByteArray payload() const
void setBitrateSwitch(bool bitrateSwitch)
void setError(QCanBusFrame::FrameErrors error)
void setErrorStateIndicator(bool errorStateIndicator)
void setExtendedFrameFormat(bool isExtended)
void setFlexibleDataRateFormat(bool isFlexibleData)
void setFrameId(QCanBusFrame::FrameId newFrameId)
void setFrameType(QCanBusFrame::FrameType newType)
void setLocalEcho(bool echo)
void setPayload(const QByteArray &data)
void setTimeStamp(QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp ts)
QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp timeStamp() const
QString toString() const
QDataStream &operator<<(QDataStream &out, const QCanBusFrame &frame)
QDataStream &operator>>(QDataStream &in, QCanBusFrame &frame)

Detailed Description

QCanBusDevice can use QCanBusFrame for read and write operations. It contains the frame identifier and the data payload. QCanBusFrame contains the timestamp of the moment it was read.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameId, QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp, and payload().

Member Type Documentation

enum QCanBusFrame::FrameError
flags QCanBusFrame::FrameErrors

This enum describes the possible error types.

QCanBusFrame::NoError0No error has occurred.
QCanBusFrame::TransmissionTimeoutError(1 << 0)The transmission has timed out.
QCanBusFrame::LostArbitrationError(1 << 1)The frame could not be sent due to lost arbitration on the bus.
QCanBusFrame::ControllerError(1 << 2)The controller encountered an error.
QCanBusFrame::ProtocolViolationError(1 << 3)A protocol violation has occurred.
QCanBusFrame::TransceiverError(1 << 4)A transceiver error occurred
QCanBusFrame::MissingAcknowledgmentError(1 << 5)The transmission received no acknowledgment.
QCanBusFrame::BusOffError(1 << 6)The CAN bus is offline.
QCanBusFrame::BusError(1 << 7)A CAN bus error occurred.
QCanBusFrame::ControllerRestartError(1 << 8)The controller restarted.
QCanBusFrame::UnknownError(1 << 9)An unknown error has occurred.
QCanBusFrame::AnyError0x1FFFFFFFUMatches every other error type.

The FrameErrors type is a typedef for QFlags<FrameError>. It stores an OR combination of FrameError values.

See also error() and setError().

[alias] QCanBusFrame::FrameId

A distinct type for a CAN bus frame identifier with either 11 or 29 bit.

See also frameId() and setFrameId().

enum QCanBusFrame::FrameType

This enum describes the type of the CAN frame.

QCanBusFrame::UnknownFrame0x0The frame type is unknown.
QCanBusFrame::DataFrame0x1This value represents a data frame.
QCanBusFrame::ErrorFrame0x2This value represents an error frame.
QCanBusFrame::RemoteRequestFrame0x3This value represents a remote request.
QCanBusFrame::InvalidFrame0x4This value represents an invalid frame. This type is used for error reporting.

See also frameType() and setFrameType().

Member Function Documentation

[explicit noexcept] QCanBusFrame::QCanBusFrame(QCanBusFrame::FrameType type = DataFrame)

Constructs a CAN frame of the specified type.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameType and setFrameType().

[explicit] QCanBusFrame::QCanBusFrame(QCanBusFrame::FrameId identifier, const QByteArray &data)

Constructs a CAN frame using identifier as the frame identifier and data as the payload.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameId.

[constexpr noexcept] QCanBusFrame::FrameErrors QCanBusFrame::error() const

Returns the error of the current error frame. If the frame is not an ErrorFrame, this function returns NoError.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameError and setError().

[constexpr noexcept] QCanBusFrame::FrameId QCanBusFrame::frameId() const

Returns the CAN frame identifier. If the CAN frame uses the extended frame format, the identifier has a maximum of 29 bits; otherwise 11 bits.

If the frame is of ErrorFrame type, this ID is always 0.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameId, setFrameId(), and hasExtendedFrameFormat().

[constexpr noexcept] QCanBusFrame::FrameType QCanBusFrame::frameType() const

Returns the type of the frame.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameType and setFrameType().

[constexpr noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::hasBitrateSwitch() const

Returns true if the CAN uses Flexible Data-Rate with Bitrate Switch, to transfer the payload data at a higher data bitrate.

See also setBitrateSwitch() and QCanBusDevice::DataBitRateKey.

[constexpr noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::hasErrorStateIndicator() const

Returns true if the CAN uses Flexible Data-Rate with Error State Indicator set.

This flag is set by the transmitter's CAN FD hardware to indicate the transmitter's error state.

See also setErrorStateIndicator().

[constexpr noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::hasExtendedFrameFormat() const

Returns true if the CAN frame uses a 29 bit identifier; otherwise false, implying an 11 bit identifier.

See also setExtendedFrameFormat() and frameId().

[constexpr noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::hasFlexibleDataRateFormat() const

Returns true if the CAN frame uses Flexible Data-Rate which allows up to 64 data bytes, otherwise false, implying at most 8 byte of payload.

See also setFlexibleDataRateFormat() and payload().

[constexpr noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::hasLocalEcho() const

Returns true if the frame is a local echo frame, i.e. a frame that is received as echo when the frame with the same content was successfully sent to the CAN bus. This flag is set for frames sent by the application itself as well as for frames sent by other applications running on the same system.

QCanBusDevice::ReceiveOwnKey must be set to true to receive echo frames.

See also setLocalEcho(), QCanBusDevice::ReceiveOwnKey, and QCanBusDevice::LoopbackKey.

[noexcept] bool QCanBusFrame::isValid() const

Returns false if the frameType() is InvalidFrame, the hasExtendedFrameFormat() is not set although frameId() is longer than 11 bit or the payload is longer than the maximal permitted payload length of 64 byte if Flexible Data-Rate mode is enabled or 8 byte if it is disabled. If frameType() is RemoteRequestFrame and the Flexible Data-Rate mode is enabled at the same time false is also returned.

Otherwise this function returns true.

QByteArray QCanBusFrame::payload() const

Returns the data payload of the frame.

See also setPayload().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setBitrateSwitch(bool bitrateSwitch)

Set the Flexible Data-Rate flag Bitrate Switch flag to bitrateSwitch. The data field of frames with this flag is transferred at a higher data bitrate.

See also hasBitrateSwitch() and QCanBusDevice::DataBitRateKey.

[constexpr] void QCanBusFrame::setError(QCanBusFrame::FrameErrors error)

Sets the frame's error type. This function does nothing if frameType() is not an ErrorFrame.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameError and error().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setErrorStateIndicator(bool errorStateIndicator)

Set the Flexible Data-Rate flag Error State Indicator flag to errorStateIndicator.

When sending CAN FD frames, this flag is automatically set by the CAN FD hardware. QCanBusFrame::setErrorStateIndicator() should only be used for application testing, e.g. on virtual CAN FD busses.

See also hasErrorStateIndicator().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setExtendedFrameFormat(bool isExtended)

Sets the extended frame format flag to isExtended.

See also hasExtendedFrameFormat().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setFlexibleDataRateFormat(bool isFlexibleData)

Sets the Flexible Data-Rate flag to isFlexibleData. Those frames can be sent using a higher speed on supporting controllers. Additionally the payload length limit is raised to 64 byte.

See also hasFlexibleDataRateFormat().

[constexpr] void QCanBusFrame::setFrameId(QCanBusFrame::FrameId newFrameId)

Sets the identifier of the CAN frame to newFrameId.

The maximum size of a CAN frame identifier is 11 bits, which can be extended up to 29 bits by supporting the CAN extended frame format. The CAN extended frame format setting is automatically set when a newFrameId with more than 11 bits in size is given.

When the format is extended and a newFrameId with up to 11 bits or less is passed, the CAN extended frame format setting is not changed.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameId, frameId(), and hasExtendedFrameFormat().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setFrameType(QCanBusFrame::FrameType newType)

Sets the type of the frame to newType.

See also QCanBusFrame::FrameType and frameType().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setLocalEcho(bool echo)

Set the Local Echo flag to echo.

When sending CAN bus frames with QCanBusDevice::ReceiveOwnKey enabled, all successfully sent frames are echoed to the receive queue and marked as local echo frames. QCanBusFrame::setLocalEcho should therefore only be used for application testing, e.g. on virtual CAN busses.

See also hasLocalEcho().

void QCanBusFrame::setPayload(const QByteArray &data)

Sets data as the payload for the CAN frame. The maximum size of payload is 8 bytes, which can be extended up to 64 bytes by supporting Flexible Data-Rate. If data contains more than 8 byte the Flexible Data-Rate flag is automatically set. Flexible Data-Rate has to be enabled on the QCanBusDevice by setting the QCanBusDevice::CanFdKey.

Frames of type RemoteRequestFrame (RTR) do not have a payload. However they have to provide an indication of the responses expected payload length. To set the expected length it is necessary to set a fake payload whose length matches the expected payload length of the response. One way of doing this might be as follows:

QCanBusFrame frame(QCanBusFrame::RemoteRequestFrame);
int expectedResponseLength = ...;
frame.setPayload(QByteArray(expectedResponseLength, 0));

See also payload() and hasFlexibleDataRateFormat().

[constexpr noexcept] void QCanBusFrame::setTimeStamp(QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp ts)

Sets ts as the timestamp for the CAN frame. Usually, this function is not needed, because the timestamp is created during the read operation and not needed during the write operation.

See also timeStamp() and QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp.

[constexpr noexcept] QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp QCanBusFrame::timeStamp() const

Returns the timestamp of the frame.

See also QCanBusFrame::TimeStamp and QCanBusFrame::setTimeStamp().

QString QCanBusFrame::toString() const

Returns the CAN frame as a formatted string.

The output contains the CAN identifier in hexadecimal format, right adjusted to 32 bit, followed by the data length in square brackets and the payload in hexadecimal format.

Standard identifiers are filled with spaces while extended identifiers are filled with zeros.

Typical outputs are:

(Error)                                  - error frame
     7FF   [1]  01                       - data frame with standard identifier
1FFFFFFF   [8]  01 23 45 67 89 AB CD EF  - data frame with extended identifier
     400  [10]  01 23 45 67 ... EF 01 23 - CAN FD frame
     123   [5]  Remote Request           - remote frame with standard identifier
00000234   [0]  Remote Request           - remote frame with extended identifier

Related Non-Members

QDataStream &operator<<(QDataStream &out, const QCanBusFrame &frame)

Writes a frame to the stream (out) and returns a reference to it.

QDataStream &operator>>(QDataStream &in, QCanBusFrame &frame)

Reads a frame from the stream (in) and returns a reference to it.

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