QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin Class

The QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin class provides an abstract base for custom QML extension plugins. More...

Header: #include <QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin>
qmake: QT += qml
Since: Qt 5.14
Inherits: QObject

This class was introduced in Qt 5.14.

Public Functions

QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin(QObject *parent = nullptr)

Reimplemented Public Functions

virtual void initializeEngine(QQmlEngine *engine, const char *uri) override

Detailed Description

QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin is a plugin interface that makes it possible to create QML extensions that can be loaded dynamically into QML applications. These extensions allow custom QML types to be made available to the QML engine.

To write a QML extension plugin:

  1. Subclass QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin and use the Q_PLUGIN_METADATA() macro to register the plugin with the Qt meta object system.
  2. Use the QML_ELEMENT and QML_NAMED_ELEMENT() macros to declare QML types.
  3. Write a project file for the plugin. Add:
    • CONFIG += qmltypes to instruct the build system to generate QML types.
    • QML_IMPORT_NAME = <my.import.name> to specify the import name.
    • QML_IMPORT_MAJOR_VERSION = <version> to specify the import major version.
  4. Create a qmldir file to describe the plugin

QML extension plugins are for either application-specific or library-like plugins. Library plugins should limit themselves to registering types, as any manipulation of the engine's root context may cause conflicts or other issues in the library user's code.

The linker might erroneously remove the generated type registration function as an optimization. You can prevent that by declaring a synthetic volatile pointer to the function somewhere in your code. If your module is called "my.module", you would add the forward declaration in global scope:

void qml_register_types_my_module();
\code

Then add the following snippet of code in the implementation of any function
that's part of the same binary as the registration:

\code
volatile auto registration = &qml_register_types_my_module;
Q_UNUSED(registration);
\code

\section1 TimeExample QML extension plugin

Suppose there is a new \c TimeModel C++ class that should be made available
as a new QML type. It provides the current time through \c hour and \c minute
properties. It declares a QML type called \c Time via \l QML_NAMED_ELEMENT().

\snippet qmlextensionplugins/timemodel.h 0
\dots

To make this type available, we create a plugin class named \c QExampleQmlPlugin
which is a subclass of \l QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin. It uses the
Q_PLUGIN_METADATA() macro in the class definition to register the plugin with the
Qt meta object system using a unique identifier for the plugin.

\snippet qmlextensionplugins/plugin.cpp plugin

\section1 Project settings for the plugin

Additionally, the project file (\c .pro) defines the project as a plugin library,
specifies it should be built into the \c imports/TimeExample directory, and registers
the plugin target name and various other details:

\code
TEMPLATE = lib
CONFIG += qt plugin qmltypes
QT += qml

QML_IMPORT_NAME = TimeExample
QML_IMPORT_MAJOR_VERSION = 1

DESTDIR = imports/$$QML_IMPORT_NAME
TARGET  = qmlqtimeexampleplugin

SOURCES += qexampleqmlplugin.cpp

This registers the TimeModel class with the import TimeExample 1.0, as a QML type called Time. The Defining QML Types from C++ article has more information about registering C++ types for usage in QML.

Plugin definition in the qmldir

Finally, a qmldir file is required in the imports/TimeExample directory to describe the plugin and the types that it exports. The plugin includes a Clock.qml file along with the qmlqtimeexampleplugin that is built by the project (as shown above in the .pro file) so both of these need to be specified in the qmldir file:

module TimeExample
Clock 1.0 Clock.qml
plugin qmlqtimeexampleplugin

To make things easier for this example, the TimeExample source directory is in imports/TimeExample, and we build in-source. However, the structure of the source directory is not so important, as the qmldir file can specify paths to installed QML files.

What is important is the name of the directory that the qmldir is installed into. When the user imports our module, the QML engine uses the module identifier (TimeExample) to find the plugin, and so the directory in which it is installed must match the module identifier.

Once the project is built and installed, the new Time component is accessible by any QML component that imports the TimeExample module

import TimeExample 1.0 // import types from the plugin

Clock { // this class is defined in QML (imports/TimeExample/Clock.qml)

    Time { // this class is defined in C++ (plugin.cpp)
        id: time
    }

    hours: time.hour
    minutes: time.minute

}

The full source code is available in the plugins example.

The Writing QML Extensions with C++ tutorial also contains a chapter on creating QML plugins.

See also QQmlEngine::importPlugin() and How to Create Qt Plugins.

Member Function Documentation

QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin::QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin(QObject *parent = nullptr)

Constructs a QML extension plugin with the given parent.

Note that this constructor is invoked automatically by the Q_PLUGIN_METADATA() macro, so there is no need for calling it explicitly.

[override virtual] void QQmlEngineExtensionPlugin::initializeEngine(QQmlEngine *engine, const char *uri)

Initializes the extension from the uri using the engine. Here an application plugin might, for example, expose some data or objects to QML, as context properties on the engine's root context.

© 2020 The Qt Company Ltd. Documentation contributions included herein are the copyrights of their respective owners. The documentation provided herein is licensed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3 as published by the Free Software Foundation. Qt and respective logos are trademarks of The Qt Company Ltd. in Finland and/or other countries worldwide. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.