QNetworkAccessManager

The QNetworkAccessManager class allows the application to send network requests and receive replies. More

Inheritance diagram of PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager

Synopsis

Functions

Virtual functions

Detailed Description

The Network Access API is constructed around one QNetworkAccessManager object, which holds the common configuration and settings for the requests it sends. It contains the proxy and cache configuration, as well as the signals related to such issues, and reply signals that can be used to monitor the progress of a network operation. One QNetworkAccessManager instance should be enough for the whole Qt application. Since QNetworkAccessManager is based on QObject , it can only be used from the thread it belongs to.

Once a QNetworkAccessManager object has been created, the application can use it to send requests over the network. A group of standard functions are supplied that take a request and optional data, and each return a QNetworkReply object. The returned object is used to obtain any data returned in response to the corresponding request.

A simple download off the network could be accomplished with:

manager = QNetworkAccessManager(self)
connect(manager, QNetworkAccessManager.finished,
        self, MyClass::replyFinished)
manager.get(QNetworkRequest(QUrl("http://qt-project.org")))

QNetworkAccessManager has an asynchronous API. When the replyFinished slot above is called, the parameter it takes is the QNetworkReply object containing the downloaded data as well as meta-data (headers, etc.).

Note

After the request has finished, it is the responsibility of the user to delete the QNetworkReply object at an appropriate time. Do not directly delete it inside the slot connected to . You can use the deleteLater() function.

Note

QNetworkAccessManager queues the requests it receives. The number of requests executed in parallel is dependent on the protocol. Currently, for the HTTP protocol on desktop platforms, 6 requests are executed in parallel for one host/port combination.

A more involved example, assuming the manager is already existent, can be:

request = QNetworkRequest()
request.setUrl(QUrl("http://qt-project.org"))
request.setRawHeader("User-Agent", "MyOwnBrowser 1.0")
reply = manager.get(request)
connect(reply, QIODevice.readyRead, self, MyClass.slotReadyRead)
connect(reply, QNetworkReply.errorOccurred,
        self, MyClass::slotError)
connect(reply, QNetworkReply.sslErrors,
        self, MyClass::slotSslErrors)
class PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager([parent=None])
Parameters

parentPySide6.QtCore.QObject

Constructs a QNetworkAccessManager object that is the center of the Network Access API and sets parent as the parent object.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.Operation

Indicates the operation this reply is processing.

Constant

Description

QNetworkAccessManager.HeadOperation

retrieve headers operation (created with head() )

QNetworkAccessManager.GetOperation

retrieve headers and download contents (created with get() )

QNetworkAccessManager.PutOperation

upload contents operation (created with put() )

QNetworkAccessManager.PostOperation

send the contents of an HTML form for processing via HTTP POST (created with post() )

QNetworkAccessManager.DeleteOperation

delete contents operation (created with deleteResource() )

QNetworkAccessManager.CustomOperation

custom operation (created with sendCustomRequest() )

See also

operation()

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.addStrictTransportSecurityHosts(knownHosts)
Parameters

knownHosts

Adds HTTP Strict Transport Security policies into HSTS cache. knownHosts contains the known hosts that have QHstsPolicy information.

Note

An expired policy will remove a known host from the cache, if previously present.

Note

While processing HTTP responses, QNetworkAccessManager can also update the HSTS cache, removing or updating exitsting policies or introducing new knownHosts. The current implementation thus is server-driven, client code can provide QNetworkAccessManager with previously known or discovered policies, but this information can be overridden by “Strict-Transport-Security” response headers.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.authenticationRequired(reply, authenticator)
Parameters
PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.autoDeleteReplies()
Return type

bool

Returns the true if QNetworkAccessManager is currently configured to automatically delete QNetworkReplies, false otherwise.

See also

setAutoDeleteReplies AutoDeleteReplyOnFinishAttribute

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.cache()
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QAbstractNetworkCache

Returns the cache that is used to store data obtained from the network.

See also

setCache()

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.clearAccessCache()

Flushes the internal cache of authentication data and network connections.

This function is useful for doing auto tests.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.clearConnectionCache()

Flushes the internal cache of network connections. In contrast to clearAccessCache() the authentication data is preserved.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.connectToHost(hostName[, port=80])
Parameters
  • hostName – str

  • portquint16

Initiates a connection to the host given by hostName at port port. This function is useful to complete the TCP handshake to a host before the HTTP request is made, resulting in a lower network latency.

Note

This function has no possibility to report errors.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.connectToHostEncrypted(hostName[, port=443[, sslConfiguration=QSslConfiguration.defaultConfiguration()]])
Parameters

Initiates a connection to the host given by hostName at port port, using sslConfiguration. This function is useful to complete the TCP and SSL handshake to a host before the HTTPS request is made, resulting in a lower network latency.

Note

Preconnecting a HTTP/2 connection can be done by calling setAllowedNextProtocols() on sslConfiguration with QSslConfiguration::ALPNProtocolHTTP2 contained in the list of allowed protocols. When using HTTP/2, one single connection per host is enough, i.e. calling this method multiple times per host will not result in faster network transactions.

Note

This function has no possibility to report errors.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.connectToHostEncrypted(hostName, port, sslConfiguration, peerName)
Parameters

This is an overloaded function.

Initiates a connection to the host given by hostName at port port, using sslConfiguration with peerName set to be the hostName used for certificate validation. This function is useful to complete the TCP and SSL handshake to a host before the HTTPS request is made, resulting in a lower network latency.

Note

Preconnecting a HTTP/2 connection can be done by calling setAllowedNextProtocols() on sslConfiguration with QSslConfiguration::ALPNProtocolHTTP2 contained in the list of allowed protocols. When using HTTP/2, one single connection per host is enough, i.e. calling this method multiple times per host will not result in faster network transactions.

Note

This function has no possibility to report errors.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.cookieJar()
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkCookieJar

Returns the QNetworkCookieJar that is used to store cookies obtained from the network as well as cookies that are about to be sent.

See also

setCookieJar()

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.createRequest(op, request[, outgoingData=None])
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

Returns a new QNetworkReply object to handle the operation op and request originalReq. The device outgoingData is always 0 for Get and Head requests, but is the value passed to post() and put() in those operations (the QByteArray variants will pass a QBuffer object).

The default implementation calls cookiesForUrl() on the cookie jar set with setCookieJar() to obtain the cookies to be sent to the remote server.

The returned object must be in an open state.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.deleteResource(request)
Parameters

requestPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkRequest

Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

Sends a request to delete the resource identified by the URL of request.

Note

This feature is currently available for HTTP only, performing an HTTP DELETE request.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.enableStrictTransportSecurityStore(enabled[, storeDir=""])
Parameters
  • enabled – bool

  • storeDir – str

If enabled is true, the internal HSTS cache will use a persistent store to read and write HSTS policies. storeDir defines where this store will be located. The default location is defined by CacheLocation . If there is no writable QStandartPaths::CacheLocation and storeDir is an empty string, the store will be located in the program’s working directory.

Note

If HSTS cache already contains HSTS policies by the time persistent store is enabled, these policies will be preserved in the store. In case both cache and store contain the same known hosts, policies from cache are considered to be more up-to-date (and thus will overwrite the previous values in the store). If this behavior is undesired, enable HSTS store before enabling Strict Tranport Security. By default, the persistent store of HSTS policies is disabled.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.encrypted(reply)
Parameters

replyPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.finished(reply)
Parameters

replyPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.get(request)
Parameters

requestPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkRequest

Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

Posts a request to obtain the contents of the target request and returns a new QNetworkReply object opened for reading which emits the readyRead() signal whenever new data arrives.

The contents as well as associated headers will be downloaded.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.head(request)
Parameters

requestPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkRequest

Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

Posts a request to obtain the network headers for request and returns a new QNetworkReply object which will contain such headers.

The function is named after the HTTP request associated (HEAD).

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.isStrictTransportSecurityEnabled()
Return type

bool

Returns true if HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) was enabled. By default HSTS is disabled.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.isStrictTransportSecurityStoreEnabled()
Return type

bool

Returns true if HSTS cache uses a permanent store to load and store HSTS policies.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.post(request, multiPart)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.post(request, data)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.post(request, data)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.preSharedKeyAuthenticationRequired(reply, authenticator)
Parameters
PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.proxy()
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkProxy

Returns the QNetworkProxy that the requests sent using this QNetworkAccessManager object will use. The default value for the proxy is DefaultProxy .

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.proxyAuthenticationRequired(proxy, authenticator)
Parameters
PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.proxyFactory()
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkProxyFactory

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.put(request, multiPart)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.put(request, data)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.put(request, data)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.redirectPolicy()
Return type

RedirectPolicy

Returns the redirect policy that is used when creating new requests.

See also

setRedirectPolicy() RedirectPolicy

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.sendCustomRequest(request, verb, data)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.sendCustomRequest(request, verb, multiPart)
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.sendCustomRequest(request, verb[, data=None])
Parameters
Return type

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkReply

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setAutoDeleteReplies(autoDelete)
Parameters

autoDelete – bool

Enables or disables automatic deletion of QNetworkReplies .

Setting shouldAutoDelete to true is the same as setting the AutoDeleteReplyOnFinishAttribute attribute to true on all future QNetworkRequests passed to this instance of QNetworkAccessManager unless the attribute was already explicitly set on the QNetworkRequest .

See also

autoDeleteReplies AutoDeleteReplyOnFinishAttribute

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setCache(cache)
Parameters

cachePySide6.QtNetwork.QAbstractNetworkCache

Sets the manager’s network cache to be the cache specified. The cache is used for all requests dispatched by the manager.

Use this function to set the network cache object to a class that implements additional features, like saving the cookies to permanent storage.

Note

QNetworkAccessManager takes ownership of the cache object.

QNetworkAccessManager by default does not have a set cache. Qt provides a simple disk cache, QNetworkDiskCache , which can be used.

See also

cache() CacheLoadControl

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setCookieJar(cookieJar)
Parameters

cookieJarPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkCookieJar

Sets the manager’s cookie jar to be the cookieJar specified. The cookie jar is used by all requests dispatched by the manager.

Use this function to set the cookie jar object to a class that implements additional features, like saving the cookies to permanent storage.

Note

QNetworkAccessManager takes ownership of the cookieJar object.

If cookieJar is in the same thread as this QNetworkAccessManager , it will set the parent of the cookieJar so that the cookie jar is deleted when this object is deleted as well. If you want to share cookie jars between different QNetworkAccessManager objects, you may want to set the cookie jar’s parent to 0 after calling this function.

QNetworkAccessManager by default does not implement any cookie policy of its own: it accepts all cookies sent by the server, as long as they are well formed and meet the minimum security requirements (cookie domain matches the request’s and cookie path matches the request’s). In order to implement your own security policy, override the cookiesForUrl() and setCookiesFromUrl() virtual functions. Those functions are called by QNetworkAccessManager when it detects a new cookie.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setProxy(proxy)
Parameters

proxyPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkProxy

Sets the proxy to be used in future requests to be proxy. This does not affect requests that have already been sent. The signal will be emitted if the proxy requests authentication.

A proxy set with this function will be used for all requests issued by QNetworkAccessManager . In some cases, it might be necessary to select different proxies depending on the type of request being sent or the destination host. If that’s the case, you should consider using setProxyFactory() .

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setProxyFactory(factory)
Parameters

factoryPySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkProxyFactory

Sets the proxy factory for this class to be factory. A proxy factory is used to determine a more specific list of proxies to be used for a given request, instead of trying to use the same proxy value for all requests.

All queries sent by QNetworkAccessManager will have type UrlRequest .

For example, a proxy factory could apply the following rules:

  • if the target address is in the local network (for example, if the hostname contains no dots or if it’s an IP address in the organization’s range), return NoProxy

  • if the request is FTP, return an FTP proxy

  • if the request is HTTP or HTTPS, then return an HTTP proxy

  • otherwise, return a SOCKSv5 proxy server

The lifetime of the object factory will be managed by QNetworkAccessManager . It will delete the object when necessary.

Note

If a specific proxy is set with setProxy() , the factory will not be used.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setRedirectPolicy(policy)
Parameters

policyRedirectPolicy

Sets the manager’s redirect policy to be the policy specified. This policy will affect all subsequent requests created by the manager.

Use this function to enable or disable HTTP redirects on the manager’s level.

Note

When creating a request QNetworkRequest::RedirectAttributePolicy has the highest priority, next by priority the manager’s policy.

The default value is NoLessSafeRedirectPolicy . Clients relying on manual redirect handling are encouraged to set this policy explicitly in their code.

See also

redirectPolicy() RedirectPolicy

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setStrictTransportSecurityEnabled(enabled)
Parameters

enabled – bool

If enabled is true, QNetworkAccessManager follows the HTTP Strict Transport Security policy (HSTS, RFC6797). When processing a request, QNetworkAccessManager automatically replaces the “http” scheme with “https” and uses a secure transport for HSTS hosts. If it’s set explicitly, port 80 is replaced by port 443.

When HSTS is enabled, for each HTTP response containing HSTS header and received over a secure transport, QNetworkAccessManager will update its HSTS cache, either remembering a host with a valid policy or removing a host with an expired or disabled HSTS policy.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.setTransferTimeout([timeout=QNetworkRequest.DefaultTransferTimeoutConstant])
Parameters

timeout – int

Sets timeout as the transfer timeout in milliseconds.

Transfers are aborted if no bytes are transferred before the timeout expires. Zero means no timer is set. If no argument is provided, the timeout is DefaultTransferTimeoutConstant . If this function is not called, the timeout is disabled and has the value zero. The request-specific non-zero timeouts set for the requests that are executed override this value. This means that if QNetworkAccessManager has an enabled timeout, it needs to be disabled to execute a request without a timeout.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.sslErrors(reply, errors)
Parameters
PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.strictTransportSecurityHosts()
Return type

Returns the list of HTTP Strict Transport Security policies. This list can differ from what was initially set via addStrictTransportSecurityHosts() if HSTS cache was updated from a “Strict-Transport-Security” response header.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.supportedSchemes()
Return type

list of strings

Lists all the URL schemes supported by the access manager.

Reimplement this method to provide your own supported schemes in a QNetworkAccessManager subclass. It is for instance necessary when your subclass provides support for new protocols.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.supportedSchemesImplementation()
Return type

list of strings

Lists all the URL schemes supported by the access manager.

You should not call this function directly; use supportedSchemes() instead.

Because of binary compatibility constraints, the supportedSchemes() method (introduced in Qt 5.2) was not virtual in Qt 5, but now it is. Override the supportedSchemes method rather than this one.

PySide6.QtNetwork.QNetworkAccessManager.transferTimeout()
Return type

int

Returns the timeout used for transfers, in milliseconds.

This timeout is zero if setTransferTimeout() hasn’t been called, which means that the timeout is not used.