Specifying Component Properties
All components share a set of properties that you can specify in the Properties view.
When you create a component using a preset component, it has all the properties of the preset you used. If you realize later that another preset component with another set of default properties would be more suitable for your purposes, you can change the component type by double-clicking the Type field and entering the name of another preset component in the field.
If you have specified values for properties that are not supported by the new component type, Qt Design Studio offers to remove them for you. If you'd rather do this yourself, you can select the (Actions) menu next to the property name, and then select Reset to remove the property values before trying again.
Each component and each instance of a component has an ID that uniquely identifies it and enables other components' properties to be bound to it. You can specify IDs for components in the ID field.
An ID must be unique, it must begin with a lower-case letter or an underscore character, and it can contain only letters, numbers, and underscore characters.
For more technical information about IDs, see The id Attribute.
The value of the Custom ID field specifies the name of an annotation.
In the Position group, you can set the position of a component on the x and y axis. The position of a component in the UI can be either absolute or relative to other components. For more information, see Positioning Components.
In the 2D space, the z position of a component determines its position in relation to its sibling components in the component hierarchy. You can set it in the Z field in the Advanced tab.
In the Size group, you can set the width and height of a component. You can also use the resize cursor to resize 2D components in Form Editor or the scaling gizmo to scale 3D components in 3D Editor. The values in the X and Y fields change accordingly.
The component size and position can also be managed automatically when using layouts.
The width and height of the root component in a component file determine the size of a component. The component size might also be zero (0,0) if its final size is determined by property bindings. For more information, see Previewing Component Size.
To return a component to its default position after moving it, select the (Reset Position) button on the Design mode toolbar. To return it to its default size, select (Reset Size) button.
You can use the properties in the Visibility group to show and hide components.
Deselect the Is visible check box to hide a component and all its child components, unless they have explicitly been set to be visible. This might have surprise effects when using property bindings. In such cases, it may be better to use the Opacity property instead.
If this property is disabled, the component will no longer receive mouse events but will continue to receive key events and will retain the keyboard focus events, if it has been set by selecting the Enabled check box in the Advanced tab.
The visibility value is only affected by changes to this property or the parent's visible property. It does not change, for example, if this component moves off-screen, or if the opacity changes to 0.
In the Opacity field, specify the opacity of a component as a number between 0.0 (fully transparent) and 1.0 (fully opaque). The specified opacity is also applied individually to child components, sometimes with surprising effects.
Changing a component's opacity does not affect whether the component receives user input events.
You can animate the opacity value to make a component fade in and out.
If the Clip check box is selected, the component and its children are clipped to the bounding rectangle of the component.
You can assign any number of transformations, such as rotation and scaling, to a component in the Advanced tab of the Properties view. Each transformation is applied in order, one at a time.
In the Origin field, select the origin point for scaling and rotation.
Set the scale factor in the Scale field. A value of less than 1.0 makes the component smaller, whereas a value greater than 1.0 makes it larger. A negative value causes the component to be mirrored in Form Editor.
In the Rotation field, specify the rotation of the component in degrees clockwise around the origin point.
Alternatively, you can move, resize, or rotate components by dragging them in Form Editor.
To specify the color of the selected component in the color picker view (1), select the color picker icon (2) in the Properties view.
You can use either a solid color (3) or a gradient (4). You can select the gradient in the Gradient Picker (5).
The Original field displays the original color of the component, whereas the New field displays the current color. The Recent field displays the colors that you have last selected.
A gradient is defined by two or more colors, which will be blended seamlessly. The colors are specified as a set of gradient stops, each of which defines a position on the gradient bar from 0.0 to 1.0 and a color. Drag the gradient stops along the gradient bar to set their values. Select the arrow below a gradient stop to see its value as a number.
To add gradient stops, move the cursor over the gradient bar and point at it with the finger-shaped cursor. To remove gradient stops, pull them away from the gradient line.
Calculating gradients can be computationally expensive compared to the use of solid color fills or images. Consider using gradients only for static components in a UI.
Select the arrow below the gradient button to set gradient properties for Studio Components.
A linear gradient interpolates colors between start and end points. Outside these points, the gradient is either padded, reflected, or repeated depending on the spread type. Set start and end points for horizontal and vertical interpolation in the X1, X2, Y1, and Y2 fields.
A radial gradient interpolates colors between a focal circle and a center circle. Points outside the cone defined by the two circles will be transparent. Outside the end points, the gradient is either padded, reflected, or repeated depending on the spread type.
You can set the center and focal radius in the Center radius and Focal radius fields. For simple radial gradients, set the focal radius to 0.
You can set the center and focal points in the CenterX, CenterY, FocalX, and FocalY fields. To specify a simple radial gradient, set the focal X and focal Y to the value of center X and center Y, respectively.
A conical gradient interpolates colors counter-clockwise around a center point. Set the horizontal and vertical center point of the gradient in the CenterX and CenterY fields and the start angle in the Angle field.
To open the Gradient Picker, select the Gradient Picker Dialog icon in the Properties view.
To apply a gradient on the selected component, select Apply.
To save a gradient in the User Presets tab, select Save.
By default, a linear gradient (4) is used, but you can select another supported gradient type in the Properties view.
To support translators, mark each text component that should be translated. In the Properties view, Text field, select tr (1).
By default, the text string is enclosed in a
If you use text IDs instead of plain text, change the default call to
qsTrId(). Select Tools > Options > Qt Quick > Qt Quick Designer, and then select the qsTrId() radio button in the Internationalization group. For more information about text ID based translations, see Qt Linguist Manual: Text ID Based Translations.
To preserve the context when editing the text or to change the context by setting a binding on the text property, change the default call to
qsTranslate() by selecting the qsTranslate() radio button.
For more information, see Internationalization and Localization with Qt Quick.
In the Advanced tab of the Properties view, you can manage the more advanced properties of components that are based on the Item component and that are mostly used by application developers.
Select the Smooth check box to activate smooth sampling. Smooth sampling is performed using linear interpolation, while non-smooth sampling is performed using the nearest neighbor. Because smooth sampling has minimal impact on performance, it is activated by default.
The value of the Baseline offset specifies the position of the component's baseline in local coordinates. The baseline of a Text component is the imaginary line on which the text sits. Controls containing text usually set their baseline to the baseline of their text. For non-text components, a default baseline offset of 0 is used.
Select the Enabled check box to allow the component to receive mouse and keyboard events. The children of the component inherit this behavior, unless you explicitly set this value for them.
You can enable the Focus check box to specify that the component has active focus and the Active focus on tab check box to add the component to the tab focus chain. The tab focus chain traverses components by first visiting the parent, and then its children in the order they are defined. Pressing Tab on a component in the tab focus chain moves keyboard focus to the next component in the chain. Pressing back tab (usually, Shift+Tab) moves focus to the previous component.
Qt Quick makes use of a dedicated scene graph that is then traversed and rendered via a graphics API such as OpenGL ES, OpenGL, Vulkan, Metal, or Direct 3D. Using a scene graph for graphics rather than the traditional imperative painting systems, means that the scene to be rendered can be retained between frames and the complete set of primitives to render is known before rendering starts. This opens up for a number of optimizations, such as batch rendering to minimize state changes and discarding obscured primitives.
For example, a UI might contain a list of ten items where each item has a background color, an icon and a text. Using traditional drawing techniques, this would result in 30 draw calls and a similar amount of state changes. A scene graph, on the other hand, could reorganize the primitives to render such that all backgrounds are drawn in one call, then all icons, then all the text, reducing the total amount of draw calls to only 3. Batching and state change reduction like this can greatly improve performance on some hardware.
You need a basic understanding of how components are rendered to be able to set layer properties. Rendering is described in Qt Quick Scene Graph Default Renderer.
Components are normally rendered directly into the window they belong to. However, by selecting the Enabled check box in the Layer group, you can delegate the component and its entire subtree into an offscreen surface. Only the offscreen surface, a texture, will then be drawn into the window. For more information, see Item Layers.
When layering is enabled, you can use the component directly as a texture, in combination with the component you select in the Effect field. Typically, this component should be a shader effect with a source texture specified. You can use the effects in Library > Components > Qt Quick Studio Effects that are based on the components in the Qt Graphical Effects module.
To enable the component to pass the layer's offscreen surface to the effect correctly, the Sampler name field is set to the source property of the texture.
Note that when a component's layer is enabled, the scene graph will allocate memory in the GPU equal to width x height x 4. In memory constrained configurations, large layers should be used with care. Also, a component using a layer cannot be batched during rendering. This means that a scene with many layered components may have performance problems.
By default, multisampling is enabled for the entire window if the scenegraph renderer is in use and the underlying graphics API supports it. By setting the value in the Samples field, you can request multisampling for a part of the scene. This way, multisampling is applied only to a particular subtree, which can lead to significant performance gain. Even then, enabling multisampling can be potentially expensive regardless of the layer's size, as it incurs a hardware and driver dependent performance and memory cost. If support for multisample renderbuffers and framebuffer blits is not available, the value is silently ignored.
The value of the Format field specifies the internal OpenGL format of the texture. Depending on the OpenGL implementation, it might allow you to save some texture memory. However, use the RGB and Alpha values with caution, because the underlying hardware and driver might not support them.
In the Texture mirroring field, specify whether the generated OpenGL texture should be mirrored by flipping it along the x or y axis. Custom mirroring can be useful if the generated texture is directly accessed by custom shaders. If no effect is specified for the layered component, mirroring has no effect on the UI representation of the component.
The component will use linear interpolation for scaling if the Smooth check box is selected. To use a mipmap for downsampling, select the Mipmap check box. Mipmapping may improve the visual quality of downscaled components. For mipmapping of single Image components, select the Mipmap check box in the image properties, instead.
To use a texture with a size different from that of the component, specify the width and height of the texture in the Texture size field.
The Wrap mode defines the OpenGL wrap modes associated with the texture. You can clamp the texture to edges or repeat it horizontally and vertically. Note that some OpenGL ES 2 implementations do not support the Repeat wrap mode with non-power-of-two textures.
You can double-click components in Form Editor to edit their text, color, or source properties inline. Because you can specify several of these properties for some components, such as Text Edit, you can also right-click components to open the inline editors from the context menu.
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